Sunday, November 27, 2011

Fifteenth amendment Of Bangladesh Constitution

Fifteenth amendment the last amendment

15th Amendment: The Parliament of Bangladesh, the Jatiya Shangsad passed the constitution 15th amendment bill 2011 on 30 June 2011 at amend it s constitution under which the caretaker government system for holding general election was scrapped. The bill which contains 15 proposals was passed by the division vote with a majority of 291-1.However amendments moved by ruling alliance opposing Islam as the state of religion and religion based politics were rejected. Islam has been retained as the state religion along -with Bismillahi-ar-rahmanir-rahim.

Salient feature of Fifteenth Amendment, Highlight of Fifteenth amendment: salient feature of the 15 amendment of the constitution passed by the parliament.
*Caretaker government system abolish.*Election to be held under incumbent cabinet Islam as state religion and Bismillahi-Ar-Rahmanir-Rahim retained.*Revival of article 12 to restore secularism and freedom of religion.*the people of Bangladesh shall be known as bangles as nation and citizens of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangladeshi.*Inserted article 7a and 7b in the constitution after the article 7 in a bid to end take over of power through extra-constitutional means.*Basic provision of the constitution are amendable.

*In case of dissolution parliament by any reason election be held within 90 days of such dissolution. Increasing the number of women reserve seats 50 from existing 45.*The supreme command of the defense services shall vest in the president and the exercise there of shall be regulated by law.*The chief justice shall be appointed by the president and the other judges appointed by the president in constitutional with the chief justice.

*The portrait of the father of the nation bangabandhu sheikh mujibur rahman shall be preserved and disply in the offices of the president, the prime minister, the speaker and the chief justice and in head and branches offices of government and semi-government offices. autonomous bodies, stativity public authorities, government and non government educational institution, embassies and mission of Bangladesh abroad.*Incorporation of historic speech of the father of nation sheikh mujibur rahman on march 7,1971, declaration of independence by bangabondhu after midnight of march 25,1971and proclametion of independence declared at mujibnagar on april10,1971.

Conclusion : It is clear that the last 40 years our constitution has experienced Fifteen amendments which is very high rate comparing to many other countries democratic countries. It prove the shorts slightness of our political leaders and the quiche shifting of our priorities. A constitution is a sign of national prestige. so we should keep it above our personal and political interest.

The Fourteenth amendment Constitutional

Fourteenth Amendment of constitution

14th Amendment: The constitution bill 2004 was passed by the Parliament in Bangladesh on may 16. 2005 incorporate in to the constitution set of probations that are at the center of a raging controversy. The bill was passed 226 to one.

The president assent it to on next day . The act come in the effect on December 8, 2004. Raise the retirement age of judges in supreme court: The Innocuous amendment has become controversial ,in particular the including that of the chief justice. This has a particular reason. The non party caretaker government under articles of 50b and 50c of the constitution , involves the last retired chief justice to become the chief adviser of the interim government.

Empower of the chief election commissioner to conduct the oath of the MPs: Ordinarily such provision is not necessary because the out going speaker or deputy speaker continues in office until a new parliament is selected. They hold a unique position in parliament style of government. with the dissolution of the government they do not lose their position because they are tied up with the continuity of the tenure of the parliament and not of the government. The following are the data at the glance about the amendment of our constitution till today.

Thirteenth amendment of Bangladesh Constitution

Thirteenth Amendment Constitution

The thirteenth amend of very important for this country. Recently Bangladesh supreme court cancel this amendment. But most of the Bangladeshi now movement to return this amendment

13th Amendment: The amend was accepted on 28th march 1996. It is said that a chief adviser with nine other advisers will form caretaker government. The chief adviser will be able to choose his advisers.

It provided for a non-party CARETAKER GOVERNMENT which, substitute as an temporary administration, would provide all potential assist and support to the Election Commission for investment the general election of members of the Jatiya Sangsad serenely, reasonably and fairly. The non-party caretaker government, comprising the Chief Adviser and not more than 10 other advisers,

would be together accountable to the president and would position dissolved on the date on which the prime minister entered ahead his office subsequent to the constitution of the original Sang sad major feature of the amendment --Maximum 70 years old, The latest retired chief justice will be selected if he is not being available then second latest retired chief justice. If not then a justice of appellate division of high court shall be selected.

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Twelfth Amendment Of Bangladesh Constitution

Twelfth Amendment

12th Amendment Bill- The bill was accepted on 18th September 1991. This amendment is second most important Amendment in the Bangladesh constitutional History. Political parties compromise to pass this bill. This amendment changes the form of the government.

Bangladesh returns to the parliament democracy. what is more, from side to side Article 59 of the constitution this act ensured the contribution of the people's legislative body in local government bodies, thus stabilizing the pedestal of democratic state in the nation.(Eleventh Amendment)

Salient Feature of the 12th amendment
Article 48 is amended and added that the president will not be the executive body and he or she will be elected by the vote of the Member of Parliament.
As a head of the state everything will be done in president's name he will be highly respected and remain the head of the state.
He or She (president) will talk to prime minister about everything except appointing a prime minister.
Article no 119 has amended and said that the election commissioner will service the election procedure. (Define Constitution)

Article no 50 was also amended and said that president can submit can submit his resignation to the speaker of the Parliament house.
Prime minister will able to distribute the ministers independently.
Article no 75 was amended and it is said that depending on the wining seats president can select leader of the largest party as prime minister. And request to form government.
Article 58 is Amended as that prime minister can advice any minister to resign if he does not obey prim minister's request the he/she(prime minister) can request President to fire the minister.(Nine and tenth amendment)

Eleventh Amendment of Constitution

Eleventh Amendment

Last I have posted nine and tenth amendment of Bangladesh Constitution. And Now I am posting The amendment of Eleventh.

11th Amendment Bill-This amendment has accepted on 13th august, 1991. This amendment proposes to face a new complicated situation. Then the government has to resign public upraising so a Caretaker government Govt. was formed making Chief Justice Mr. Shahabuddin Ahmed as Chief executive. (Forth Amendment)

Soon After the general election he nodded to back his own post of Chief Justice. This Amendment added the article no 21 that said that the acting president can back his own post and all the steps during the mention period is legal. This Act ratified, established and validated each and every one powers exercised, every one laws and ordinances promulgated, all commands completed and acts and belongings completed, (Eighth Amendment Of Constitution)

and proceedings and procedures in use by the vice-president as temporary president for the period of the period among 6 December 1990 and the day (9 October 1991) of captivating more than the office of the president by the new President ABDUR RAHMAN BISWAS, accordingly voted beneath the amended requirements of the structure. The Act too complete and completed potential the come back of vice-president Shahabuddin Ahmed to his earlier position of the Chief Justice of Bangladesh(6th and 7th amendment)

Nine And Tenth Amendment Of Constitution

9th and 10th Amendment

Previous I was discussed Eight amendment of Bangladesh Constitution.

9th Amendment Bill- the Amendment bill has passed 10th July 1989. This alteration provided for the straight voting of the vice-president; it controlled a individual in share the office of the PRESIDENT for two uninterrupted conditions of five years every one; it what's more provided that a vice-president strength be allotted in case of a opportunity, but the prior arrangement have to be permitted by the National Parliament.

10th Amendment Bill: This bill was passed 12th June 1990. The amended, between others, Article 65 of the establishment, as long as for reluctance of thirty chairs for the after that 10 years in the Jatiya Sangsad (national parliament)completely for women members, to survive selected by the members of the Parliament(six and Seven Amendment)

Eighth Amendment of Bangladesh Constitutional

8th Amendment

8th Amendment bill: This amendment has been accepted on 17th June 1988. In this amendment an article called 2(A) added saying that the state religion will be Islam.

It is also in this amendment that 6 benches of high court will be set up in six division Head Quarters. Amended the speech 'Bengali' into 'Bangla' and 'Dacca' into 'Dhaka' in Article 5 of the constitution. Amended Article 30 of the constitution by elimination reception of any designation, honors. reward or beautification from any distant state by any civilian of Bangladesh without the preceding authorization of the president. It probably will be prominent here that the Supreme Court consequently affirmed the alteration of Article 100 unauthorized given that it had misrepresented the fundamental configuration of the establishment.(Seventh Amendment)

Sixth and Seventh amendment of constitutional

Six and Seventh Amendment

Previous Was Discussed First to Fifth amendment of Bangladesh constitution and definition of Constitution. Now I am Posting 6th and 7th amendment of Constitution.

6th Amendment Bill- The Amendment was passed 8 July 1981. The Sixth adjustment Act was enacted by the Jatiya Sangsad with a outlook to amending Articles 51 and 66 of the 1981 formation

7th Amendment Bill: The Amendment was passed 10 November 1986. It amended Article 96 of the formation; it moreover amended the Fourth timetable to the constitution by inserting a original subsection 19 thereto, on condition that between others that all proclamations,

public statement guidelines, Chief Martial Law Administrator's commands, Martial Law convention, soldierly Law commands, military Law directions, ordinances and other laws completed for the duration of the stage between 24 March 1982 and 11 November 1986 (mutually days comprehensive) had been authentically completed and would not be called in query in or previous to any court or tribunal or influence on any position at all.

Fifth Amendment Of Constitution

5th Amendment Of Bangladesh Consttutiton

5th Amendment Bill: This amendment was passed to establish the legality of the work of then chief martial law Administration from 15 January to 6 April 1979.

The Amendment was passed 6th April 1979. This Act amended the Fourth agenda to the constitution by calculation a original subsection 18 thereto, which provided that all amendments, accompaniments, modifications, substitutions and omissions completed in the establishment for the duration of the period between 15 August 1975 and 6 April 1979

Verdict on it September 2005-The high court declared the 5th amendment of the constitution including martial law Regulation no VII of unconstitutional.

The High court declared at the same time the taking over of the power by all the governments august 15, 1975 to December 6, 1990 unconstitutional. But the court condoned all acts and legislations and action taken by those governments as passed and closed transaction with some exception.

Fourth Amendment Constitution Bangladesh

Constitutional 4th Amendment

4th Amendment Bill-By that amendment Bangladesh turned into presidential form of government from parliamentary form of govt. It was accepted on 25th January 1975 for facing a severe challenge of worst political and economic situation. Salient feature bellow-

a autocratic method in position of a combined arrangement was introduced; the powers of the jatiya sangsad were condensed; the judges misplaced a great deal of its freedom; the supreme court was underprivileged of its command above the fortification and enforcement of basic rights.

This Act (i) amended articles 11, 66, 67, 72, 74, 76, 80, 88, 95, 98, 109, 116, 117, 119, 122, 123, 141A, 147 and 148 of the foundation; (ii) substituted Articles 44, 70, 102, 115 and 124 of the establishment; (iii) amended part III of the formation out of continuation;

(iv) misrepresented the Third and Fourth agenda; (v) unmitigated the tenure of the first Jatiya Sangsad; (vi) completed particular necessities involving to the place of work of the president and its serving; (vii) inserted a original part, ie part VIA in the constitution and (viii) inserted articles 73A and 116A in the establishment.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Constitutional Amendments Bangladesh Second and Third

What is second amendment,Third amendment

Previous I Posted about first amendmendment bill. Now I am posting about Second amendment and Third amendment of Bangladesh constitution.

Second Amendment Bill-The 2nd Amendment second amendment date of this bill is September 20, 1973. This act in effect (i) amend Articles 26, 63, 72 and 142 of the foundation, (ii) the replacement of Article 33, and (iii) the placing of a part that is original IXA in the constitution. The requirements were completed across this alteration for the postponement of certain fundamental rights of people in an urgent situation.

(For Definition of Constitution)

Third Amendment Bill-The date of this amendment is the third bill November 23, 1974. The establishment of the 1974 Act was enacted November 28, 1974 through altering Article 2 of the Constitution by means of a vision as a result of a generous conformity between Bangladesh and India in admiration of switching enclaves confidence and charm of the boundary linesconnecting India and Bangladesh

Middle East The Focal Point Of International Politics

Middle East Politics

Introduction: The region has become the focal point of international politics during the second half of the twenty-first century is the Middle East. With the huge discovery of oil in some countries. Geo-strategic location and political configuration of the region led the forefront of the broader realms of international politics. Because in the post-war policy in the Middle East has always seems to be the region more unstable and strategically alarming in their world.

Border countries: The Middle East is made up of 22 countries with 19 f 3 are Arabs and Iran, Israel and Turkey are not Arab. The region covers the area and in countries from Morocco and Algeria is in the west to the south. Total area of ​​the region is 5,000 square miles with about thirty people corer which ninety percent are Muslims.

Factor that makes the region the focus of international politics: the important factor that has made the Middle East more crucial in the realms of the largest international politics and economics can be summarized under the following heads:

1. Geo-strategic position of the region is very important strategically center that can provide a lot of weight for the country that controls it in the broader system of power relations, because

First, is located at the intersection of three Asian countries. Africa and Europe, and bordered by Turkey, Pakistan and the Horn of Africa. Thus, the presence of a hegemonic superpower in the region of half its location in the system boundary of the balance of power.

Secondly, the communication channel in the region are more favorable from the point where you can move easily around the world by any means of communication, road, air, sea etc. fringed by five seas and two oceans, the region easily accessible by sea. The sea as a short crossing turkish satisfied, the Suez Canal, Bub-al-Mandeb and the Strait of Hormuz to international communication are famous for water, trade and commerce.

Thirdly, the former superpower Soviet Union and the European super powers are adjacent to the region. Even the threat of a rival Islamic state also located in the western region. The region thus is considered the most crucial in international politics and relations.

2. Oil-the lifeblood of industrial societies: The former defense secretary Harold Brown we considered constituents of oil from the Persian Gulf as the lifeblood of modern industrial society and we believe that this loss to the economy of the west and the industrial Far East would be a coup aimed proportion tropics.

(Department of State Bulletin, vol 80no, 2038)

In oil present in the UK North Sea is at its peak, the giant field in Alaska, the former Soviet Union, Mexico, Venezuela and Norway are all past peak. The U.S. supply of oil has been falling since 1970. The only oil producer with a resource that may be able to keep the oil flowing in the world market to a near-constant level is the five Middle East OPEC Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and UAE. So, almost super-political and economic power and also the countries always try their best to ensure the flow of cheep oil and some times result in clashes between them.

3. Explosion in the region: The Middle East has undoubtedly been the scene of a greater degree of war between the state than any other region of the world in the period after 1945. The invention of the Arab Israeli wars of Iraq of its two neighbors. -1956 The Suez crisis and turmoil in Afghanistan has seen to that. At the moment all over all the super powers, especially America is playing the role of conspiring to safeguard their interests behind the geo strategic and economic threshold of peace making is discussed. The region therefore has become the most explosive region of the world, both internally and extreme threat to the largest regional security and makes the world worried.

4. A potential market for arms trade: The medium is the destination of most arms exports, creating huge fit for the politically powerful producer of arms exporting countries like USA, Great Britain, Russia, France and others. The countries of the region spent annually about 15 present of their GDP on the purchase of weapons. The main reasons behind the arms in the region are as follows:

a. Arms sales are an important component of the construction of political alliances, especially with the military leadership of the country's beneficiaries;

b. There is a strategic advantage from having to make the system between printability superpower on the ground;

c. Arms sales are a means to support military industries in the face to deceive demand in Western countries;

d. Smooth transformation of oil for weapons and arms to ensure the smooth flow of oil.

So, all the super powers are not interested in maintaining peace in the region, but the situation violates that require more hands to hold the other.

5. Religious and ideological concern: East is the birthplace of three monotheistic religions, Islam, Christianity and Judaism that has played the role of history and politics of the region. Thus, the most sacred places of the three monotheistic religions are in this region that threatens the world go to the west after the collapse of the USSR. This ideological configuration of the region made the hotbed of world politics.

6. The Palestinian question: the conflict of long standing with regard to Palestine between Jews and Arab Muslims Israelite is a major concern in the realm of international politics grating. Since the beginning of each super power especially American support for Israel and the Arab refusal to accept its existence in the region has resulted in some wars and conflicts to date as it appears in the region. Even Israel is regarded as the cancer of world peace.

7. The incidence of terrorism in common with the third world as a complex relationship with violent metropolitan countries and the tension generated within the societies of the Middle East for this contact. have led to recurring waves of popular discontent and mobilization agilest external forces of domination and against those who collaborated with them. Such anti hegemonic, anti-Western impulses some results in time hijacking, kidnapping and bombing of civilian facilities and such Western actions carried out primarily by militants and western variety of ideologies. When the American war against Afghanistan by the name of eradicating terrorism, has created a dimension of tension in the region.

8. Zone likely World War III: The 1970 provided years after event after event that has put the Middle East in the foreground of international politics. The OPEC price rises to 1971-1973, the revelation of Iran, the Arab-Israeli wars, the Iran of 1980-1988 wars in Iraq and the Gulf War of 1990-91. After the collapse of Soviet communism, the invention of Western red menace new enemy, the Muslim world as a Green Peril, has helped to create enmity between the Muslim world and the West, which is manifested in the development with the recent tragedy in New York and the American attack on Afghanistan. So the American war against the Muslim world under the name of eradicating terrorism, the DC voltage and internal strife in Palestine Middle East etc. You did a land likely World War III.

Note: The world is now divided into specific regions based on several criteria, such as strategic geographical importance of diplomatic and economic-South and South-East Asia, Latin America, Africa, the Middle East. Among them the importance of the Middle East is far extended, multidimensional and multifaceted that transcends geographic boundaries. She has gained so much importance and precise placing this in world politics today that non-intelligent, independent and pragmatic foreign policy can be formulated by any country, east or west, large or small, developed or underdeveloped, Muslim no Muslim past and ignoring the the Middle East.

In this new country, the Middle East not only maintain its importance and its meaning can be increased for this ship of Muslim leaders. The regions oil resources allow the region to train its important for the world economy. However, very nervous about the future role of the region largely depends on the unity of the countries of the region and their success in removing and misunderstandings that exist today. Thus, the oil rich Middle Eastern countries should no longer be pawns in the hands of imperialist powers. They should take a lesson from the past harsh and bitter.

First Constitutional Amendments Bangladesh

Constitution Amendment

The constitutional amendments of the Constitution of Bangladesh has been changed over a period of a few. The next version is epigrammatic of these acts and commands. The total amendment of Bangladesh constitution is 15. Here I describe the most important changes First amendment Bellow -

(If you need definition of Constitution)

First Amendment Bill-This was the first amendment to our Constitution. Manoaranjan Dhar is presented. It was about the trial of war criminal. Date of this amendment is July 15, 1973. Amended exhibit 47 of the Constitution by inserting an additional section that allowed the hearing and prosecution of any individual accused of 'genocide, crimes aligned with war crimes and other crimes civilization or act in the world. Following Article 47 Article 47A was inserted by specifying inapplicability of the original positive elementary constitutional rights in personal property of individuals.

Definition of Constitution

What is Constitution?

Some definition of constitution I describe bellow

About the definition of constitution Aristotle Says, "Constitution is the way of the life the state has chosen for herself."

According to the Lord Bryce "The aggregate off laws and customs under which the life of the state goes on."(Book-Essay on Flexible and Rigid Constitutions)

Austin Ranney Says " A constitution is the whole body of fundamental rules, written and unwritten, and extra-legal, according to which a particular government operates."

According to K.C Wheare-"The constitution is the body of rules which and the organs through which government power is exercised."

C.F Strong says: " A constitution may by said to be a collection of principles according to which powers of government, the rights of the government and the relation between the two are adjusted."

Considering the above definitions we can say-"Constitution is the some basic rules that tell us how the country will be governed, how the citizens will be dealt with, what wil be the relations among they pillars of government."