Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Students Politics

Politics In Bangladesh

Students Politics in Bangladesh: an observation

Introduction: Education is the backbone of a nation. But most of the time following our leaders overlook this truth. They favor their play rough on educational policy. Instead of pen guns promote student. So, today our educational institutions are not supported for education and aptitude rather than guns and gatherings. However, our students have a great story when they played a leading part in making the nation free from overseas occupation, repression and to establish human rights of the people. Then student organizations to be oriented to the interests of students, and the best welfare of the nation. But over time, became the association earlier of the following parts. Today the best of our politicians are playing a double game. When towards the students to stay away from politics. In case of opposition, on the other hand, want to take a top in politics. The current debate on the ban on student organizations is also the effect of the double standard of our politicians.(what is leadership)

Political history of our students: An organization Students of our country has a long history and magnificent. Students have played a significant role in the anti-British movements against repression in Pakistan, linguistic group, Anti-Ayub movement of '60, six trips to the point, people upsurge'69, after all, during our War of Liberation. At that time, the policies of the student had a -

First, the tyranny progestin, oppression, injustice, etc.
Second, protect the welfare of students.
After the liberation, our students have been alienated into two camps. First, the investor and the second faction, the faction of the left.
After the brutal murder of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975, the political character of the students has been changed a lot. In the first phase of the military regime, there was a link shortest among the best students and the head of state. Here the President was right to support students. So, there was an addition to horizontal between political parties and student organizations at his place of vertically.
In the second phase of the military regime, the students became more political opportunist. During this period, the leaders of at least two students were full ministers.

Gradually, with the advent of civil society against the military government, student organizations became partners in support of the parties. Then student organizations became the home of the national political authorities that provide strength and money to terrorist activities alongside the government.

So, after the conquest of the Ershad government, the dependence of political parties in student organizations on their allies was enormously greater. The two rival parties, the BNP and have made their efforts to sponsor all student organizations if they use them against each other. Thus, during the rule of BNP in 1991-96, most of the universities were under the control of JCD. But with the dethronement of BNP in 1996, JCD has been replaced by Chatra Leauge (BCL). At present, Chatra in use since the control of the whole educational tradition survived their opponents. They are doing the same things, as done by Chatra League.
The current trends in student politics: With respect to political pre-release of the students, the nature and individuality of our organizations present day students were very distorted.
First, at present, the political attention of students as an important basis of political authority in national politics. Students are now influential not only in their own organizations, but also in their parties.

Secondly, the policy now in one day for students is neither people nor education, but is supported obliquely oriented to personal interests and power. Their movements are not for students, but only to reinforce their position in the site. They are student leaders, rather than power elite of our society.

Thirdly, in the past, students had a complaint against oppression, cruelty and injustice. They were moving next to the brutality of humanity. Unfortunately, these characters have changed our students' organizations existed. Today, students are not criminals, they are brutal killers. The majority of crimes in our society have been devoted, directly or indirectly, by the students in his place in so-called bad policy. The type of our daily politics of the hands of students in a hireling, rent-seeking, aggression and crime to love.(Definition of secularism )

Fourth, another significant trend of political discussion among our students is a rival student organizations take to organize a specific region or institution. For this, they also do not hesitate to kill their opponents. The most devilish because their behavior is that sometimes kill their pictures only to create an alarming situation in their individual institutions.

Fifthly, all the terrorist groups of students are booked by politicians who use them to effect their position within and outside the party. Sometimes, the villages of student organizations of equality with those of political party affiliation.

Sixth, students question the very Large 'leaders' rising arrest, manipulate jobs, build up and climb aboard the reimbursement scale socio-economic, including the seats in parliament. Thus, the various fronts of the students are only a likeness of the main political parties whose immediate goals have more to do with seizing authority and enjoy it while it lasts.

Controversy over the ban on student politics: During the domination of AL President Justice Shahabuddin was admirable to recommend policy to prohibit students. Then the government Awami Leage was to preserve themselves by saying that I also agree with the president but he needs the cooperation and agreement between the parties patronizer. The current prime minister also said that his government would ban student politics, but it is necessary to bring the academic environment of our educational institutions. His statement has created a controversy on the issue. One group has taken its position next to student politics, while others, including opposition AL are also banned.(micro credit)

A. Arguments against the students who take part in politics: The arguments are generally made against the students who take any interest in politics are as under:
1. The students are young and it is likely that they will be easily misled by intelligence agents of political parties. Even the current state of student politics in our country is enough to prove that assertion.

2. Through the active participation of students in politics, students are derailed today and the educational institutions of our country have become battle grounds. Students are more familiar with guns than books. So, if we fail to make education free from politics would be left behind in this ever changing world.(Electronic Government)

3. Those who support the proscription of student politics, the students argue that politics is the root of many socio-political crime and disorder in the country. It 's become a danger to the orderly development of our youth.

B. The arguments in favor of students who participate in politics: Those who support the policy of the students, submitted the following topics:
1. If students take away from politics altogether, politicians remain children even when they are grown. Then they will be more easily misled later in life because of their lack of knowledge and inexperience.
2. Historically our students role-plated magnificent national liberation, progress and development. They were the pioneer in making the nation free from dictatorship in 1990. Thus, every effort to keep students out of politics may have some grounds, but in the long run can cause enormous damage to the nation.
C. Sometimes, the reasons given for the banning policy students are challenged by the fact that ---
1. Why are efforts to ban student politics was not treated as an attempt to hide the failure of the government in striking and punish the terrorists?
2. Does not the prohibition of political pressure from the students in the national politics?
3. The ban on student politics means identification of student politics and also irresponsive to a non-politician. Do you?
4. Will it help to eradicate terrorism from society?
Final Comment: Despite the above discussion, in particular influence facour and against the policy of the students, we must not forget that the main duty of a student is to remember his lessons and not to take part in public affairs. He is to gain the knowledge to train his mind and to prepare him for the duties of life. If you take too high a share of the political relations, which can not deviate from its main occupation. However, there is a demarcation between attractive intelligent attention in politics and taking part in public affairs. This line should never be disturbed.(caretaker government)

Moreover, it seems clear that what our political parties are doing is not only profligate, but also completely illegal. So our political parties should ensure that they will keep any relationship with the student organization. Otherwise, all work must be translated only dubiousness and discontent.(women Rights)

Tuesday, May 29, 2012


definition of Leadership

Introduction: Good leadership are made not born. They develop through a process does not complete the self-study, education, training and knowledge. This guide will help you in this process.(know about secularism)

To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are things that need to be convinced of them, they know, and do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good work and best are continually knife to harvest their leadership skills, do not rest on our laurels.

Before you begin, we classify leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to have made an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more unified and coherent. Leaders perform this procedure, by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.For data micro credit)

Bass (1989 and 1990) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two give details of the development of leadership for a small number of people. These theories are:

- Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.

- A crisis or a life event can cause a person to address the downturn, which brings out extraordinary leadership in a common person. This is a great theory Events.

- People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the theory of transformational leadership. It 's the most popular theory to practice today and the premise upon which this guide.

Principles of leadership: an intelligent leader must take is researching the principles to follow, because all these have been tested successfully.

- Be tactically and technically proficient
- Know yourself and hunt for self-improvement
- Knowing their followers, and look out for their own good
- Keep their team member learned
- Setting up a model
- Ensure that the task is understood, supervised and talented
- Training of their followers as a team
- The sound and timely decision making
- Develop a sense of responsibility to their subordinates
- Using their units in accordance with its ability to
- Looking for responsibility and accountability for their events
Knowing them and seek self-improvement: In order to know themselves, they must appreciate their being known, and then attribute. Seeking self-improvement means continually increase their attribute. This can be achieved through self-study, formal classes, reflection and interaction with others.

Be technically proficient As a leader, they must
- Know their job and I'm familiar with the solid work every day of their employees.

- Look for responsibility and take responsibility for their actions-seeking ways to bring their organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do, sooner or later-do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move onto the next brave.
- Plays a sound and timely decisions, high quality and problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
- Set the example Be a good role for replication of their employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the alter-we want to see Mahatma Gandhi
- Know their people and look out for their well-know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for their staff.
- Keep employees informed-not only know how to communicate with them, but also elderly and input.
- Develop a sense of responsibility to their workers, help to develop good-natured traits that will help them take their professional responsibilities.
- Ensure that activities are understood, supervised, and accomplished-communication is the key to this responsibility.
- Train as a team Although many so-called-best to call their organization, department, section, etc. a team, the teams are not really ..... are just a bunch of people doing their jobs.
- Use the full capabilities of your organization-By developing a team spirit, will be able to use their organization, department, section, etc. to their maximum capability.
Factors of leadership: There are four major factors of leadership:
Follower: Different people need different leadership styles. For example, a new assumption needs more in the direction of an employee expert. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of inspiration. They must recognize their people! The opening point is crucial to have a good knowledge of the quality of the human landscape, as the needs, knowledge, and do attributes.(how to know about electronic government)

Leader: They must have a true understanding of who they are, what they know and what they can do. Also note that is the following, not the leader that determines whether a head has happened. If you do not trust or lack of self-assurance in their leader, then it will be trivial. To be successful, should lead their followers, not themselves or their superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.

Location: Everybody is different. What they do not always work in a situation in another. They must use their judgment to decide the best course of action and the management style needed for each situation. For example, it may be necessary to address an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the comparison is too late or too early, too cruel or too weak, then the mat proves unproductive results.
Various factors influence these forces. Examples of forces are on their relationship with their elders, the ability of their people, the best informally within their organization, and how their company is prepared.

Communication: It is the last message. For a communication leader is needed. Whatever brightness or power is the leader in all these are vain, but the power of communication.

Leadership and policy framework: In a situation of effective leadership, the leader is a lawyer whose leadership style is the covenant and construction. While in a state of unproductive leadership, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership method is manipulation? Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get, but to evaluate the distribution of power and wealth, but to build links with other stakeholders, use persuasion first, and then use co-operation and coercion only if necessary.

Leadership and symbolic framework: In a state of effective leadership, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in a position of leadership fails, the operator is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is to play certain roles and give burn imitation, these leaders use symbols to capture notice, and tries to frame the knowledge, experience by providing plausible interrelations , who find out and talk to a vision. This model suggests that leaders can be put fan of one of these four categories and there are times when you approach traveling alone is not sufficient, then we must strive to be aware of all four approaches, and not rely only on one or two. For example, in the course of a change large organization, a leadership style structural can be more efficient than a way visionary leadership, while in a period in which the growth corpulent is necessary, the visionary approach can be improved. We also need to know ourselves, how each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We must be aware of these at any time and be aware of the limitations of our favoring just one approach.
Types of Leadership:
Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship): People who get this rating are job oriented and are very firm on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or teamwork. People highly task oriented show these characteristics: they are very powerful physically timetables, expect people to do what is said, without prompting or discussion; amazing when it's bad tend to focus on who is to blame, rather than focusing on it is absolutely wrong and how to prevent it, but they are intolerant of what they see as a rebel (can be in a minute someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to make a payment or developed.

Team Leader (high task, high relationship): This type of person who leads by example and constructive events to promote team in a situation where all team members can reach their top potential, both as individuals and as team members . They support the team to reach team goals as efficiently as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bond among members. Usually form teams and conduct some of the most productive.

Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship): This person uses primarily reward the power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to achieve its objectives. On the contrary, are almost incapable of employing coercive and disciplinary powers more legitimate. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with other team members.

Leader depleted (low task, low relationship) A leader who uses a "hand up and disappear" management style. Since they are not even committed to accomplishing the task or service, but essentially allow their team to do what he wants to break away from the process and encourage tam, allowing the team to suffer a series of power struggles.

The more desirable place to be a leader along the two axes in most cases would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people, the leader of the team. However, not entirely dismiss the other three. Some situations may require one of the other three to be used at times. For example, playing Leader depleted, allowing their team to gain confidence in themselves. Be an authoritarian leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. Knife carefully the situation and the forces that influence, they will know at what points along the axis must be to achieve the preferred outcome.

The Process of Great Leadership: The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1987) which is common to successful leaders:
- Challenge the process - First, find a process that wants to believe to be improved more.
- Inspire a shared vision - Next, share that vision into words that can not be written by their flowers.
- Enabling others to act-Give them the tools and methods to solve the mali.
- Model-so when the process gets tough, dirty his hands. A boss to tell others what to do ... shows that a leader can do.
- Encourage the heart - Share the glory with the heart of their followers, while the maintenance of pain in the right.
Traits of a good leader: Compiled by Santa Clara University and the Group: Tom Peters
- Honesty - Display sincerity, integrity and sincerity in all their actions. Deceptive behavior does not inspire confidence.
- Competent - Their actions should be based on reason and moral beliefs principal. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings.
- Forward-looking - Set goals and have a vision of the future. The dream must belong to the entire organization. Effective leaders imagine what it wants and how to get it. They usually choose priorities arising from their fundamental values.
- Inspiring - Display confidence in everything they do. By showing endurance in mental strength, physical and spiritual, they inspire others to reach for new heights. Take charge when necessary.
- Intelligent - Read, study and seek challenging assignments.
- Fair-minded - Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. Display empathy to be sensitive to the feelings, values, interests and welfare of others.
- Broad-minded - Are you looking for diversity.
- Courageous - Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal, despite the seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Display a confident calm when under stress.
- Simple - Use judgment to make the right decisions at the right time.
- Imaginative - Make timely and appropriate changes in their thinking, strategies and methods. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, thoughts, and solutions to problems.
Concluding remarks: the leaders do not command excellence, they build distinction. Excellence is "being all that can be" done within the limits of what is wrong for their organization. To make excellence a leader must first be of good moral fiber. They must do everything they are supposed to do. Excellence starts with the best of good spirit and strong that they engage in the whole process of leadership. And the process is the primary form of life of a person of honorable character. A strong person may be greater or bad. A gang leader is an example of a strong person with a poor quality, while an outstanding group of leaders of the people is one with the unity is strong and good. The organization wants a leader with strong individuality is good, the people who will guide the future and show that you can trust.(saarc leadership)


definition of secularism

Introduction: Secularism is the creation of the European Renaissance, which emphasizes the opposite of this-worldly sophistication. Secularism does not include physical thinking and Meta also excluded if grounded on the eternal soul and supernatural strength. With the extension of science and technology, secularism has also become the dominant ideology in both the grazing of academic debate and responsible state plan. Even most of the country today are very interested in confirming themselves as secular and do their best to get the certificate by representatives of Western secularism. The exponent of secularism seek to separate religion from the state and politics to defuse the human life of any religion shall apply. But in practice, the proponents of secularism are much more common then the supporters of the pious practice in all spheres of human life. For example, India is regarded worldwide as a country traditionally mundane but the country is bankrupt by a common political party.

Meaning of secularism: it is very difficult to give a single definition of secularism. Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary defines 'secular' as belonging to the present world, or property are not religious. It means things that are civil, not ecclesiastical, are not about religion, is not bound by monastic rules. Oxford Advanced Dictionary defines the students 'secular' expression as something that is not about religion or business. The dictionary describes' secularism as the belief that the law, education should be based on facts, science rather than religion, etc..(to know about Micro credit)

A secular state is one that has no official ties to any movement or position at all sacred. This is a whole view of life and the visible cosmos. This estimate does not include the metaphysical thought, and thought also exclude the eternal world, soul and supernatural strength. Secularism efforts to craft the full meaning of human life with its ups and downs.
Aspects of secularism: secularism has both a subjective and an objective piece.
one. Subjective aspects of secularization involves the gradual disappearance of religious considerations, feelings and images from caring about worldly affairs, so that faith has ceased to exist as an independent power, or merely a religious concept of the transcendental. As a result, people from the experience requirement, transactions and institutions of everyday life in terms that make no reference to the heavenly.

b. The objective aspect of secularization is the process by which the offices, religious institutions and ceremonies are extruded from the community of life in education, government and legislative direction.
In addition, the secular brings with it two segments inevitable for the life of human commerce as a whole.

First, the doctrine of enforced secularism of the dilemma I guess with the state and without vagueness firmly said that religion should be separate from the state.
Secondly, the political philosophy implemented by the secularism, materialism, as distinct as idealism, that secularism is not neglected genius, but he knows the material well-being work independently, if insidiously, to control the mind.
Secularism and the relationship between state and religion: the principle of secularism resolved the issue on the relationship between state and faith. The State has nothing to do in the midst of a single person so far or she is nervous with the world's religions propagate the omnipotence of the wonderful natural force and declare to the world as eternal as the ultimate goal of super natural power and speak the world ever, as the final destination of the human being. State and faith should not outline them as their subject matter jurisdiction and is completely different.
The flowering of secular views facilitated the creation of an independent and sovereign nation state. Because of the priority of consideration due, the territory during the Middle Ages religion was established under the direction of the Christian priesthood. With the growing power of secularism, the religious has been gradually losing its dominance and left on the face of severe resentment of the people of the world have established their sovereign predictable. Over time, the division between state and religion happen and the State's responsibility is to make all sorts of earthly well-being of his people was recognized.(to know about electronic government)

Secularism and religion: There was no debate on the distributions of secularism and religious guarantee. The purpose of secularism is to improve the whole of human life from the material at home and materialist methodology. The object of the secular world is the evidence, which is detectable by human senses. Deals with the understanding that secularism is not transcendental, which could achieve with the experience and the cause which can be transcendent obscenity. On the other hand, preaches the supremacy of faith superpower usual, gives eternal relation of the world, heaven and hell that are hidden and unknown to the individual human health. Secularism has no involvement with the transcendental world. In this intelligence, religion and secularism are not only separated, but are opposed concepts.(to know about saarc)

Another dominant point of view into consideration, even if the secular and spiritual faith are distinct, but their conflict is not predictable. In this sense, secularism not be familiar with the eternal world, at the same time requires it, not deny it, supports this point of view than to say that cooperation is possible with those religious people who in spite of their faith religious are trying to make their life full of meaning through the fabric content. It 'a fact that today there is no contradiction between secularism and peaceful observance of the faith. Secularism means do not make purchases at any specific religion, but to ensure that all the religions fail forward with equal status. The state should promote not express any religion.
Conclusion: In the end, the meaning of religion is not secularism. It means secular neutrality. Secular state does not interfere with the performance of the peaceful religion. Thus, secularism should be used as a rule that does not consider spiritual influence. In this sense, secularism inspired by the mass of the group develop their secular life through material support without leaving their spiritual beliefs and activities.(to know about what is socialism)

Monday, May 28, 2012

Micro Credit

what is micro credit

Micro credit: a scale development

Introduction: money generating money. Adam Smith in his famous book The Wealth of the nation said: 'When you have a little' coverage, it is often easy to get more. The difficult thing is to get that big 'little. Microcredit is a very small size of loan that is given to skinny to self-employment. The institutional arrangement is an innovation in micro-hot revolution poverty. The revolt has started micro credit among rural women in 1970. The revolt had its roots in the claim that the poor need credit and could use more highly than bad credit and responsible. (to konw aBout Electronic government)
Definition of Micro Credit: Conceptually, microcredit can be described as an advance security petite offered free to the poor to create jobs in small income-generating activities based on the methodology set loan.
Microcredit can generally be defined as a programmer who offer credit for self-employment and other financial and business services including bundle, and technical assistance to the population Broke.
Definition of Microfinance: Microfinance is a combination of savings, loans, investment opportunities, additional options of insurance and financial services.
Poverty, the empowerment of women, nutrition, health, planning people, education, housing, self sufficiency, sustainability are all addresses of microfinance.
Features Micro credit: The microcredit system, service providers go to the door of the scale based on the belief that poor people should not go to the bank rather than bank must go to the people. The recognition is another important micro coating. (to know about caretaker government)
- Microcredit is known with less paperwork.
- Workers must make the usual visits to the construction of the borrower to provide advice and oversight.
- A small mass of the loan.
- And 'free security.
- The recovery time is more than 90 percent.
- All loans to be a new employee in instilments paper or bi-weekly basis.
Difference between micro-credit and bank credit
Micro Credit Bank credit
1. Loan system is simple 1. On loan is complicated.
2. Poor may simply access to micro credit 2. The poor have little access to bank credit imperfect.
3. Employment rate loan up to 85 percent 3. Supervision of credit loan, then recovery rate is 40-60 percent.
4. Credit highly guarded, so as to rate of recovery is about 99 percent 4. Credit less controlled, in order to rate of recovery is 40-60 percent.
5. NGO staff are friendly and helpful to poor borrowers 5. Bank staff are regularly in a friendly way with the poor borrowers.
6. Repeat loans are easier to within 2 or 3 days to repay the previous loan 6. Loan recovery is difficult.
7. No certificates or documents are required to receive loans 7. The certificates or documents are required to receive loans.
8. The lawsuit after borrowers default not to be taken 8. Bank adopts the judicial process as certified cases.
9. Borrowers have 95 percent women face gender 9. Poor women have access to a very partial to the banks.
10. Landless and illiterate in touch with lending by 10 NGOs. Landless and illiterate, have no access to banks.
11. Borrowers have the power through the stipulation of education on development issues 11 different counts literacy. There is such a scale in a bank.
The birth and evolution of Micro Credit: Microcredit is not a new event in our country. The birth and evolution of micro-credit have been enumerated below:
Usurers A. Traditional: The first time, people would use the money from loan sharks conformist. They will receive a high interest rate and in this estimate were similar to blood suckers. The fishes of reminders used to lend money to the subject only to shake their lands. The Kabuliwalas were more interested in getting the concern over capital.
Debtors Agriculture Act 1937 and the Money Lenders Act (1938) has imposed restrictions on the activities of money lenders. Sher - E - Bangla AK Fazlul Hoq saved poor farmers by the Boards of moneylenders to issue debt settlement.
B. Comilla Model: The model has been urbanized Comilla Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD) in 1960 with the main propitious Aktar Hamid Khan. This model was also based on a team approach and the micro conditions of glory to the Cooperators. It 'was extended to the whole country in 1970, includes a rural development program (IRDP). Under IRDP farmers were trained in two groups of first-level profits, credits and production factors are mobilized. Later, IRDP has been distorted in BRDB (Bangladesh Rural Development Board). Currently, BRDB is a top supplier of micro-credits in the government distributes among the poor.
C. Grameen Model: Prof. Dr. Mohammad Yunus led loans and distribution device in 1976 in Zobra petite village of Chittagong. And 'persistent state in a project enabled Geameen Bank Prakalpa money with the help of the Bangladesh Bank. After the success of this system, the government said in 1983 Grameen Bank Ordinance. In fact, Dr. Mohammad Yunus trandformed microcredit practices in institutionalized reorganized and innovative method which recognized worldwide as the Grameen model.
In addition to these unusual micro-credit approaches have been urbanized by BRAC, ASA, Proshika and other NGOs. Today Bangladesh is called the laboratory of micro-credit and micro-credit revolution.
Campaign Microcredit: Microcredit, which was urbanized in a poor country like Bangladesh is now considered one of the most powerful weapon to alleviate shortages around the world. In order to duplicate the program to organize globally, the first Micro Credit Summit was arrested in Washington DC, USA in 1997. The peak of microcredit launched a global group to reach 100 million poorest families with credit for the world of nature and the employment of other military and monetary affairs by 2005. At that summit prof. Yunus said, 'we believe that poverty does not belong to a refined human society. It belongs to museums. "The Micro Credit Campaign has successfully designed three local meetings: October 2000 in Harare in Zimbabwe. February 2001 in New Delhi in India, in October 2001, the pueblo of Mexico and in February 2004 in Dhaka of Bangladesh.

Micro-credit Global Perspective: The image around the world concerning the coverage of microcredit shows the donations made by the program. Until December 21, 2001 for a total of 2186 banks reported Micro achieving 54 million customers, 26.8 million of which were among the poorest when it is started with the program. Of 2186 institutions that had reported to the unit Microreader 1075 were in Asia. 740 in Africa, 230 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 59 in North America, 59 in Europe and 23 in the Middle East. Of the 54.90 million global customers 47.90000000 in Asia, in Africa 4.5 million and 2 million in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Microcode has become a global agenda for economic and social development. Grameen Bank, the mother of effective micro-credit program has supported 113 organizations in 34 countries in Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The full report of these organizations are now one million members, 99% of whom are women. NGOs, like other major BRAC. ASA were replicate their programs in different countries of the world.
Micro credit initiatives and Government: The Government of Bangladesh microcredit is interested in two ways:
one. Funding for NGOs: the PKSF (Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation) is an apex public for the provision of military and institutional credit to NGOs. PKSF government established in 1990. Since then PKSF has lent about U.S. $ 252-250 NGOs cover more than 3.8 million borrowers. As the largest association of micro-credit loans in the world's standards of PKSF, the rule and the procedures are approved by several countries to develop their own micro-credit sectors.
b. Provide micro-credit: At present, thirteen ministries and partition of the Government of Bangladesh and its neighboring departments have distributed micro-credit. Government departments and the organization has so far disbursed about Tk. 15 billion to 10 million people living in poverty through microcredit. Currently owned by the Government Krishi Bank, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank, Sonali Bank, Janata Bank, Agrani Bank, Bangladesh Ansar and VDP Bank Bank jobs are in service microcredit programs.
Credit and Development Forum (CDF) is an organization of their government, which is a network of NGOs MFLS (Microfinance Institutions). CDF provides a basic training and require the service to its members changed MFLS NGOs.
Microcredit and Poverty Reduction: The main entities of the Micro credit is to make low-income families and thus reduce poverty. Micro-credit leads to improvement in income and income growth to lift the poor above the poverty line.
The Secretary-General Kofi opines that eradicating poverty is perhaps the most challenging global economy. Out of 6 billion world population 2.8 billion survive on less than two dollars a day progresses. Of the 1.2 billion people, 50 million live in Asia and 30 million in Africa. Microcredit programs in these regions show that the Micro Credit is a poverty alleviating muscular arms. More than 64 million poorest people in the world have a full part in the previous seven years of microfinance projects in the function out of the circle of poverty cruel.
Micro Credit and Women Empowerment: micro ruffles a noteworthy role in the positive empowerment of rural women. Through their involvement in microcredit, many women have hit leaders, instigating change in the common practices and relationships and mobilizing social action. The status of women both in their homes and communities is best when they are responsible for the loan and asset management. When generating their own power and self-control and with more respect. Poor women boast the best credit rating. In Bangladesh, for example women default on loans less often than men and women full credit has a much better home use and quality of life for the family. The direct effect of microcredit programs on women's position in the public sphere as the bank. Thane headquarters, hospitals, etc.
High Interest Rate-A Dilemma: It is assumed that the distributors of microcredit in Bangladesh is high time the interest charged on credit. As a result, borrowers are getting poorer. The critic says that the credit is much more expensive NGOs in favor of a poor borrower to make money in a bank. But we focus on the same side of the question at issue.
A. Interest Rate is not high:
- Rate of 15% flat credit the attention of NGOs is essential to its sustainability in the long term extended.
- NGOs take trains on the threshold of borrowers that reduces the transport cost and time borrower.
- A programmer credit NGOs can never be sustainable if they can not cover the total outlay of his action, in particular the following: * The salary costs of personnel cradle * annual * funds * The annual costs of depreciation and the cost inflation.
- There is no denying the effectiveness of strict supervision and monitoring of the glory NGOs operated on household incomes of poor borrowers. Cost of supervision and control make the rate of attention these sane.
- With Micro is not charity. Interest rates have to attack the cost of micro credit institutions. Otherwise, this body would cease to exist. So let the market agree on the rate.
Interest rate on credit B. Micro is very high: NGOs are charging high interest on microcredit. They are doing business in the name of poverty reduction. According to one study, the micro system with interest charges as above 30% to 40%. In this position, the receivers of credit run the risk of taking new loans from which the damage rate. They reality is that the Micro Credit perpetuate the poverty of the borrowers. Among the other persons who administer the program are better and have colorful beetle.
Other criticisms:
- The pros and cons of micro-credit system, its efficiency is a matter of dispute.
- The cost of the Micro recognition is very impressive. Micro credit operations can be vilified as Kabuliwalah activities.
- Microloans are serious procedural problems and do more than good mali.
- There is good governance and transparency in Micro Credit as the organization.
- The recovery system of paper creates pressure on borrowers.
- There is no legal framework for the control and the Micro Credit overseas, where the organization. As a result, many NGOs are not allowed corrupt the poor.
- Many NGOs are limited unregistered transactions in the name of the micro-credit and the reduction of scarcity.
Policy recommendations: microcredit system has some functional and procedural problems. Some recommendations have been placed to overcome these problems.
- Micro credit collapse operators should focus on poverty rather than use it as a business.
- You should cut rates on credit warning. This should reduce operating costs.
- The size of the loans should be inflated so that people can go out to start the cycle of poverty.
- The micro-credit banks under the government's initiatives may be well known in rural areas to streamline micro financing.
- Each financial institution wants to surveillance and control. A regulatory commission should be set for the operation of overseas Micro credit programs.
- Good governance and transparency are vital factors that should be aimed at ensuring the functioning of microcredit.
- In Bangladesh, the majority of citizens are Muslims. We can see the Islamic economic system and Islamic banking in Islam. So, micro-credit system should be in line with the principles of the principles of Islam.
Conclusion: Despite some limitations, microcredit has been established as an effective means of alleviating shortages and approach to development. This is a material of pride that Bangladesh is a global center of excellence in micro and home to many successful micro lending support to the institutions. Mrs. Mbeki, the woman from South Africa has really defined Bangladesh as the 'University of Microfirorce'. Poverty can be eradicated throughout the world list of effective micro-credit that originated in a country like Bangladesh thin.( to know about saarc)

electronic government


Introduction: Information Technology (IT) is the new most talked about topic around the world. Information technology has his magic touch most of the natural sciences, social and time. Every obedience of knowledge and technology is trying its best to avail the highest benefit from this magical instrument to develop. Government and administration in different countries of the world are also under this magical spell of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The use of the internet before now is beginning to change the way government operates in response to the mandates of incorporation, such as improving the range of waste, streamline operations and to provide more achievable public access to information. Bangladesh also connected to this IT race in 1964 with the installation on the IBM computer at the Atomic Power Commission. Later computers became popular with financial institutions and the press and the introduction of home computers (PC) in early 1990. In contrast, the use of information technology in the process of government and administration is negligible to date.

The concept of E-government: E-government or resources of the electronic government delivery of public services and information to the public through electronic methods, such as the Wide Area Network, Internet and mobile computing. This method can serve a variety of different purposes, better delivery of public services to citizens, improved offenses with business and industry, citizen empowerment in access to information for a more efficient government. The advantage that results can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, the growth proceeds and / or cost reduction. In other words, the use of IT in government facilitates an efficient, fast and transparent dissemination of information to the public and others and to perform administrative tasks of the government.

Worldwide, the government is increasingly using sequential and internet technology to provide services between the public and citizens, businesses and other government agencies. From the essential elements of a country to different types of forms / documents can be found in a government website now limited as well as international visitors are always benefited from this. Some government websites allow citizens to access government documents, periodicals, the duty to file, reserve accommodation, paying bills, ordering vital records and renew licenses and permits from any location with an internet connection. Tourists can also get the necessary information, as it is, the reserve requirements for hotels, bus / train / plane schedules, ticket reservations, maps, etc. from web sites. Some government websites that allow visitors to print the visa from the sites and always allow the submission of the form seen online.

So, there are already cryptogram that e-government is transforming organizations, breaking down organizational boundaries and until further access to information, improving communication and facilitate independent processes.

Phases of E-government: United Nations / ASPA global survey recognized five categories to determine a country's e-government progress. According to the categories identified, the company's internet may vary from a country with some promising websites fully integrated autonomous ministry or organization in which a country provides all military specifications through an online gateway to Ingle. The technology allows the progression of being fast, dynamic and not necessarily an individual order. Since that e-government is driven by new technologies, its process is continuous, transforming everyday. There is no pre-set development and time-line or line-shelf. The categories are.

Emerging Web Presence: A country can have a solitaire or some official sites of national governments that provide information to the stationary member and serve as tools of public relations.
-Enhanced Web presence: the number of government Web pages to improve the information becomes more dynamic with users who have more options for access to information.
-Interactive web presence: a fairer exchange between the user and a provider of repair of government takes place, ie the forms can be downloaded; applications submitted online.
-Transactional Web Presence: Users can easily access the services with priority according to their needs, on-line transactions of formal behaviors, such as paying taxes, the amount recorded.
Completely web-presence: The absolute integration of all public services online through a single portal shop.
E-government in Bangladesh: Considering this condition generally, in Bangladesh, no one can deny that there is a culture of information being developed in Bangladesh. It is also seen that the government project in the IT department is far behind the private entrepreneurs. Bangladesh has only one government official homepage / website (, which can not be considered fully in any industry to adjust and some official pages / web sites of various government agencies, such as office Comptroller and Auditor General (, Ministry of the support (, Bangladesh Bank (, National Board of Revenue (www.nbr-bd-org), which only provide static information to the user. Unfortunately, the going rate on-line by various government agencies is not more than ten percent.

There are no documented IT cell, these agencies to monitor the sites yet. There is also no attempt to update existing websites, with up-to-date information regularly. Almost all websites have outdated information, giving a negative impression of the country. It is safer not to ask any questions about standards for the design of these websites. So far no websites are far better than that of Bangladesh ministries.

Communications with the public and the system continues to depend on the telephone and fax. There is almost all electronic communications in effective government offices. Among the progressive authorities within the government, the National Board of Revenue (NBR), conceptually very advanced in those other. It has undertaken a program to connect customhouses through a system of networking online.

Framing the situation in Bangladesh, with the phases of e-government UN / ASPA global survey it is clear that Bangladesh is still in the first phase of web presence promising. According to this stage, a country can have only one or a few sites official national program offering static information to the user and serve as instruments of public affairs.
Recommendation: The long description of the creation of Bangladesh in the IT industry and the different types of problems, it is clear that Bangladesh has much to do to develop its IT industry capable of ensuring the progress of Bangladesh in the next phase of E- government. Therefore, the following recommendations can be taken into account to prepare for the next phase of e-government.

one. National IT Policy: Bangladesh should adopt a national IT policy. Under the EN
Political will should be a 10 year action plan to share some goals such as building infrastructure in the country, creating a national database, increase the export of software from a specific number, etc.

Bangladesh Computer Council (BCC), have delivered a national policy for IT project for the government but for some mysterious reason has not been done yet in the past even though the government has declared IT as a thrust sector. Federation of Bangladesh Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FBCCI) the main body of the private sector, has already drawn up an action plan for a long ten years for the IT industry. Bangladesh Computer Samity, ISP Association of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Software Exporters Association and not a government agency Bangle-Tech is preparing a draft IT policy of Bangladesh.
b. EN: To achieve sustainable growth in the IT industry and compete in the expanding global IT market, the government of Bangladesh should develop the infrastructure strengthening buy computer Bangladesh Council (BCC), Ministry of Science, Information & Communication Technology and reorganize the role of BTTB. Government must move from the role of BTTB service provider infrastructure providers.
First, BTTB should complete the task of providing Internet service to all district headquarters as soon as possible. Ongoing process of computerization and networking in all government agencies should be done as soon as possible. Then each division Government ministries, departments, organizations and all district headquarters, Upazilla headquarters and the headquarters of the Union should be networked to the National Center for use of data in the shortest possible time.
Secondly, the entire ministry, decisions, government agencies and semi-government organizations should establish ID websites where all policies and information relevant to the community must be regularly and efficiently laid low. The government should implement common IT system to provide broad national coverage and access files from any citizen to the government and administrative system that can be irrational to extend public armed forces to the most remote corners. Official website of Bangladesh should be the homepage of all the information and links related to various ministries.(to know about caretaker government)
Thirdly, a special programmer should be used to repair Internet educational institutions and libraries at a subsidized rate. Latest these libraries can be put under a solitary network so that a citizen can access any library anywhere.
Fourth, cyber café should be established in all post offices, Union complex and complicated Upazilla to offer and guarantee admission to public information. These coffees later can 'be the set to introduce e-government.
Fifth, the government should also create a joint venture IT Parks. Park software with advanced communication services made with the cooperation of distant and non-resident companies in Bangladesh.

c. development of IT professionals for the development of IT professionals as a result of the measures should be taken:
First, the dramatic events of the government should be taken to support standard for IT training and education in the country. As the University Grant Commission (UGC) and the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB). There may be a body to oversee the curriculum and the establishment and coming up with a National Curriculum Integrated IT for Bangladesh.
Secondly, the government must take appropriate measures to attract talented students to take IT education. Unlike the type of grants / scholarships / assistantships may be offered to students. Government can offer unusual IT Education Loan for students too. Government can egg on the private sector for this.
d. The laws related to IT: We should have a legal framework to take care of the interests of IT professionals, private entrepreneurs, and customers either computer. Thus, the government must come forward and begin the legal framework to provide guidelines, principles, systems and legislation to promote e-business.( to know about Women rights)
and. IT Commission / Division: The need for an IT committee felt very bad human being. Because the mali computer technology are so that only a person learned to recognize the trend of the requirements and to the stress of the IT infrastructure.
Conclusion: Bangladesh as a developing country with a good impression of promising young people, has proven its value in the field of IT. Today our youth are competing in the international stadium in the IT industry with energy and confidence. However, to e-government, Bangladesh has to go a long way. The personal sector has a little 'more than sufficient to demonstrate this promising division. Again it all depends on the role of government. The government must choose which way to go. To add in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and organizational performance through the introduction of e-government or to the century old administration in corruption, red tapism, dissatisfaction, nepotism, the option is for governments.(to know about Hartal In bangladesh)

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

Caretaker Government

what is a caretaker government

The caretaker government in Bangladesh is the most political issue in Bangladesh. for the issuance of the recipient government's attention most of the opposition leaders in jail by the government. Because political party is going to make the motion for this problem

Introduction: The elections are measured to be the standard by which a democratic government works. It provides the processing power of income. While the elected government requires regular elections for the Parliament, the query of free and fair elections is also important. The prelude to the organization of Bangladesh recognizes the fundamental objective of the State to realize the democratic procedure for the creation of a free society begins to explain the process more democratic term, the nation is a democratic organization ....... in which the successful participation by the people through their designated representatives in administration at all levels must be guaranteed. So, after the fall of Ershad in 1990, he invented the moving parts of the government thought guardian. so that no party can have a considerable bearing on the method of election. Since then three consecutive elections will take place in three governments Warden.

Background of the concept of Caretaker Government:. The concept of concierge Govt. was entirely new. Although there is a controversy regarding the individual who first introduced the concept in Bangladesh. Jamat-e-Islami claimed he was a teacher Gulam Ajam, the then Amir of the bash, which introduced the first pride. On the other hand, tends to the glory Awami League leader Sheikh Hasina on them to introduce such an idea. but, all the opposition party in parliament, then to turn good operation of the system and eventually became common and created pressure on the government to bring in a bill at the meeting the transitional government. At the final stage of their movement, the opposition party has resigned from the group and asked non-stop strike until the govt. leave. At one point the group, and the government finally passed. Today, the pattern of caretaker govt. is the part of our foundation.

Arrangements for the interim government: Thirteenth alteration was made March 28, 1996 introducing the pilot of a non-party caretaker government for the creation of Bangladesh (Chapter 11A, Article 58B-58E). It will work through the period between the date on which the chief adviser to this government enter the workplace after Parliament is dissolved from the base of the expiry of its term until such time as a new entry in its first rector after the agencyConstitution of the Council. This government is composed of the CEO to his head and no additional ten other advisers, each of which is fixed by the President. The managing director and another adviser is appointed within fifteen days after Parliament is dissolved or stands dissolved.

Who would be the advisor / consultants: the leader appointed as Managing Director of saying that among the retired Chief Ministers of Bangladesh retired last and who is able to be appointed as a consultant in this piece.
Provided that if such retired Chief Justice is not at hand or is not willing to shake up the position of Director, the President appoints the managing director as saying that among the delegates retired judges retire before the next correctness last chief retired.
If no retired Chief Justice is available or not willing to hold the office, the leader designates the person who among the retired judges of the appellate divider retired last year. Provided that if such retired judge, is not at hand or will not hold the office, the president should use the car that the jury retired from the Appellate Division retired just before the last retired judge so.
If no retired judge of the Appellate Division exists or is willing to take the office, the president must take, in consultation with the main political parties, the Chief Advisor of Bangladesh among the citizens who have the ability to be chosen as a consultant under this article.
If none of these options have potential, then the president must assume the functions of the Chief Advice-givers in addition to his own.
Moreover, the president must use the advisors, chosen among those who are-
a) responsible for election as member of parliament;
b) not members of any organization or any political revelry associated or connected with any political party;
c) and have not agreed in writing not to be candidates for the election result;
d) not more than seventy years of age. The members are chosen by the Chairman in discussion with the Chief Advisor.
Term of office: the period of provisional government has three months within which will tighten the general elections of parliament.The interim government can not expand the term s of governance. If in the opinion of the Chief Electoral leaders, is not likely to hold such election within ninety days, then the period of interim government will be extended to a period of more than a three moths (ninety days).
Duties and privileges: the willpower of the guardians of the non-Party government plays the role of a government that acts and functions will continue these habits. But for the emergency plan will not take any decision (Article 58 D-1). The non-party caretaker government jobs will be required to provide to the Election Commission all possible assistance and rather peacefully and impartially.

Rating system: The structure of the interim government has advantages and disadvantages of cooperation. Level politicians, who had to fight for the system, now take the opposite position.However, the advantages of the system are more than its disadvantages. The advantages of the system undertake the following.
First, the system of caretaker government has given a new path of democracy and voting in the country. It helps us get rid of monocracy.
Secondly, the interim government on condition that the persons the ability to enjoy their rights to vote and play their role in a better democratic governance. Previously, people had time to know that they are entitled to vote. The military governments and party so perverted that they never gave the people the opportunity to vote.
Thirdly, the system of government concierge helps make government accountable to the public holiday. Because, as the ruling party should hand over power after the completion of the sentence and take part in general elections, the system of government Porter played a crucial role to make the bash in power should understand that taking part in elections as large as the other shares without any possibility of unfair means.
Fourth, the system of the host government has a huge role in the construction of the electoral process and likely increase the credulity and the legitimacy of the parliament and government.
Fifth and last, is a milestone in our trip to parliamentary democracy.It gave a new way for democracy and development and even was hail, both by developed countries and in the grass.
However, the system has some drawbacks that sometimes shakes the very process of governance and equality. For instances, the system of government is a sign or guardian blocking of our political leaders. It 's also a shame for the nation as a whole. Recently, the party is crying next to the system. All parties are supporting the system identically.
Conclusion: beyond the conversation shows that the system is ablessing interim government for the chosen people of the country.While some areas have reported on the following day next to the system such opposition did not land among the masses. Thus, in spite of some danger, the system should survive for the notice of democracy and progress of the State.

if you want more information then vai Amendment 15 constitutions Bangladesh

Saturday, May 12, 2012

Women Rights

Introduction: Loss of power of women in a stain on civilization person. Due to the short position of women, about half the population of Bangladesh has gone back into the twilight. Women's access to the position of pressure and is normally limited, and their job choices more limited, and they earn less than men and struggle to merge the activities outside the home with their conformist position. Knowledge is primarily rooted in the division for women's worth it for something, but their reproductive role. Illiteracy, low life expectancy, low share of the workforce, not the possession of the land, the highest unemployment rate, high birth rates, death, forming a vicious cycle negative affects women in Bangladesh. Thus, in spite of his being found in freeing women and education, women in Bangladesh are politically out of use, oppressed socially, legally and technically private unnoticed. In other words, women are abandoned in almost all spheres of their lives and lack of empowerment of women

Bangladesh is derived from this scenario insensitive society.
Concept of empowerment: Although the phrase does not have a definition of empowerment pot still, is repeatedly used to articulate a process in which the weak or powerless acquire a stake in improving the management of resources and the trial verdict. Batliwoala defines empowerment as a process through which the universal and destitute women in meticulous tend to increase control over resources and ideology. And because women are generally more formal, such as members of the disempowered classes intimidating, vocabulary 'women empowerment' has come to be related to the effort of women to social justice and equality. The procedure for challenging existing power relations and control in front of more sources of skill can be defined as empowerment. As a result of empowerment of women is separation of power between the sexes, which belies the hope of many people notice that the emancipation of women should not men powerless.
Current status of women's empowerment in Bangladesh: The place of women in Bangladesh is much lower than that of women. However, women symbol of a person half the resources of the country and one half of its potential. Their literacy rate is only 65 percent, which is 55.6 per cent for men, life expectancy is 58.1 years for men and 57.6 years for women. Humanity excessive among women because of favoritism led to a relationship in which there are 105 men per 100 women. On the state of the diet of women and girls is characterized by strong differences with that of men and boys. Concern for the health of women is often limited to their reproductive health. Violence against women is alarmingly increasing. The Bureau of Bangladesh figures in a special report in 1999 revealed that death due to unnatural causes is almost three times higher for women due to pregnancy related.
Despite the legitimate mandate, the visibility of women in public review was negligible. Their contribution to institutional development and the creation of decision is also minimal. Wage differential between men and women are very high in case of an employee.
Besides, the foundation of Bangladesh provide the following formal equality between men and women. There is no legal obstacle for women contest or vote for any elected office