Monday, December 26, 2011

study Political Science



why Study political science


Political science is the learning of governments, policies and processes opinionated, systems and support activities. Political science subfields include political hypothesis, political point of view, political principles, political, financial system, studies of strategy and investigation, the government proportional, global relations, and a congregation of associated fields. (designed for high-quality segment of the cross-sectional areas of review, the scientists used to support cooperation and humanistic perspectives methodical and equipment and an assortment of mechanical approaches to control development, systems, and dynamic support of all countries and regions of the human race.

Why study Political Science?

Watch out for the U.S. government? relationships around the world? dangerous aspects such as health, environment, civil rights, human? Theories concerning the ideal management and how the authority and possessions shall be borne by society? Want to learn more about these subjects and pursue a job based on your attention? If so, you must believe to study political science.
Students of political science can increase a put adaptable skills who can be functional in a wide range of careers hilarious Federal, State and governments restricted the law, commerce, organizations around the world, relationships and non-profit organizations , movement and organization surveys, newspaper writing, teaching pre-stitched; election political affairs, investigate colleges and universities and schools.

Post Gaddafi Libya



Gaddafi Libya

Muammar el-Qaddafi, the Libyan autocrat despised for over forty years, he met his aggressive finish in October in a death apparently appropriate. at present the head of government is feared on the left, the Libyan people are faced with the job opening and the option plus the pieces Gaddafi of Libya, which tore apart. This mission will not be easy. wake up to this position, countless groups of rebels armed forces have been combined with their desire to try to open Libya. when that reason has been reached, will require a new powerful inspiration to go forward: an inspiration that will determine the amount of development in post-victory Gaddafi in Libya. If a desire for revenge dominates the prospect of Libya, the nation does not escape its history. positive, positive conversation inserted between the Interim Government and the rebels is the input for the organization's victorious innovative administration in Libya.



The disappearance of Gaddafi was cause for celebration with immense and inspection. even if Qaddafi was supposed to live captured and taken first to the ICC Intercontinental, apparently unnoticed by his captors, and that killed him, probably in discomfort to the stature of the previous authoritarian. The video shows his way of life imprison dragged from one side of the road, the autopsy of his body shows that he died of a gunshot to the top, and the voices that were sodomized prior to death are out of control. The information that the Libyan army did not allow self-respect of a blond Gaddafi study shows that a fierce desire for revenge was as physically powerful as the desire for freedom for the whole movement violently adjacent to the autocrat. This bitterness towards the administration of Gaddafi, while defensible, is dangerous because it prevents Libya from focusing on their opportunities. (Definition of civil society)
Gaddafi out through photography, the prospect of Libya is uncertain, and the presence of militias is only adding to the confusion. Being short of a strong central power has already been physically hurt a lot of Libyans, in particular the brave people who had ties to the duration of the insurgency. A human rights watch constitutional declaration said that the militias in Libya continue to aim "loyalist", city and pro-Gaddafi supporters in an illegal and inhumane, even post-Gaddafi. The one-way relationship torment of being a prisoner and the same to that approved for the duration of the stature of the government of Gaddafi. To advocate the common paradigm in Tawergha, Libya, the association has interviewed a lot of people just to find that the rebels were randomly awesome, thrashing, or abusing and supporters of the previous government, causing loads to flee in terror. Testimonies of people dead feature of the blameless Tawergha from beatings torture by rebel kidnappers seeking revenge in ways that are counterproductive to the development in Libya. (Bureaucracy Definition)
On the other hand, the prospect of Libya is not entirely inhospitable. Libya, as well as the global society might be able to put their trust in the new head of the provisional management of Libya, the Transitional National Council, Prime Minister al-Abdurraheem keibo. Dual nationality investment in the United States and Libya, el-keibo has lived in America since 1975, receiving a Ph.D. from North Carolina State University and the property a long period of training available at the University of Alabama as a university professor engineering. recently, a symbol of trust for democratic organization in Libya, al-keibo was designated Prime Minister for his arrangement by members of the Transitional National Council after the top of the previous NTC Mahmoud Jibril, remained to ensure its precise step down after the jailing of Sirte, the partisan latest offer. El-keibo is a supporter of independence., Which bodes well for the possibility of Libya, as he is able to show how to build NTC decisions without prejudices that are excellent for Libya as a complete, rather to point out that providing a variety of insurgent groups.



emotional connection with the supervision of the development of Libya in his episode in the middle, the NTC and el-keibo must work together with the troops and rebels for the transport of tranquility and stability in Libya. Libya did not need a quick remedy for universal democratic electoral vote and organization booths has gone right, but a little 'low-key revival and healing process that involves open listing inserted between the rebel groups' desires and hopes of the new administration provisional. The risk of jumping on the bandwagon of democracy for the sake of democracy is that the Libyans and the kingdom shall not be prepared for such a transformation unexpected. It 'likely that the rebels and a variety of ethnic groups in Libya will experience hurt or disillusioned with democratic organization in Libya, in particular because there are opposing views of how the newly minted management should control Libya. This may point the way for Libya's denunciation of democratic organization, tribal opposition, and evaluation at the end of social conflict. Thus, prior to democracy can be productively established in Libya, near the foundation believe should be taken at constant potential control of Libya.
First, both the NTC and rebel groups must work together to stop the forces loyal to Gaddafi that continue to cause unrest, while firmly insisting on the maintenance of fair criminal trials for those arrested. Those who accept the loyalists of the old regime and the new future for Libya should be incorporated in the progression of the Libyan political, not ostracized by the rebels. While the NTC can extend a hand of partnership to various rebel groups to help capture those who are still supporters of Gaddafi, we must insist on conducting a lawful and fair process for those arrested.


And 'determination to get the time as a nurse back to health devastated Libya. The rebels have to give permission rather than a desire for revenge eclipse goals for self-advancement. The realization of Libya is crucial not only for the age group of Libyans after that but also for brain waves, provided that the additional population of the "Arab Spring" countries that are currently the focus of a movement violently for them have possession of freedom and self-government administration. self-governed development, however, get a deal immense effort and time. significance for the present we just have to wait a container that Libya does not lie in seeking revenge, but as an alternative choose to center on its potential.(Definition of law)

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Libya’s Their Future



Libya's Situation after Gaddafi


Why the people in the oil north of receiving what time you are over the means of subsistence and not get paid anything? "Said Hisham Hamadi. The fleshy, vigorous legal representation was a discussion of activists face or tense after Libya three amazing (or Berber), those communities Nafusa mountains, the coastal town west of Zwara, and the Tuareg of the Sahara wasteland. And it was the Tuareg that Hamadi Nafusan was what time it attractive to the spine of the injustices visited upon them here in their assets de facto

The dusty town of 50,000 in the Western Sahara, earlier in Mali and Algeria to Tripoli and Benghazi, the city was virtually previous Libya to be unconventional by the rebels. many foreigners, counting the other Amazigh, Obara continued to charge that Qaddafi pending the conclusion. over some of the speakers countered that the Tuaregs in any way supported totalitarianism, but the reality is that the Libyan Army brigades and two Obara based paramilitary outlaws by the members of Qaddafi were surrounded by few service options this on the poverty area. one protester Tuareg confined Akaty Abu Bakr, said 138 soldiers were killed Touareg for refusing instructions to fire on civilians. But perhaps like many of 300 men were killing Obara hostility to the government years, a number of terrible physical attack Gaddafi Misrata and other Tripoli protecting the innovator.
It is effective that each stakeholder in the discussion gave their consultation in Arabic, Amazigh dialects are not mutually comprehensible. There are ethnic differences and rewarding as well. The Tuaregs, top, folding, and dark skin, do not come to be on the reserve as of the Amazigh Zwara and mountains, with their Mediterranean complexion and many different body types. ethnically, the northerners are far more embedded in today's world, and those at the meeting wore suits of commerce in the West. many residents of southern trees conventional floor-length coats, full, Mali, in a colorful colors. conceivable ten percent closed their front.
a number of Sahrawi abandon the thought of the limits of the country, stressing that they are marked in the middle of Algeria, Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso and other African nations . But despite the fact that Amazigh easily demonstrate their pan-national flag, often the mortification of their Arab neighbors-country Amazigh is not the biological mother possible. still in Libya, the two main areas of the resolution are distant by about a thousand kilometers.
circumstances are often dire in southern Libya. Gaddafi went to high school 200 km away mostly Arab-Sebha, a city of 350,000, but if he takes a shower all the munificence of the municipality, it is unbreakable to discover. Sebha is best described as an abandoned compost with the accessories of a core-city provisions, cafes, hotels, banks. The two-lane road sandwiched between Sebha and Obara situation is shredded. The best street in Sebha, north of Tripoli, is roughly marked, with no stations for extensive review of over 150 km.

Obara is a huge transaction cleaner and more good-looking as Sebha. But his constituency like the lean profitable Afghanistan over northern Libya small Mediterranean towns. little boys tempting cakes on sale around full by their mothers at the same time women Amazigh wasted wasteland turn on lots of unconventional advertising gateway attach toothbrushes, spices and powders unexplained from the south. A crowd of unhappy men meet every daybreak in the facade of the implementation of the repository, boring to withdraw their salaries directly deposited (they are incomplete captivating dinners or 750 for $ 600).

The owner of one of Bangladesh's clothing stores for men in the city told me that the notable lack of local people is belied by the thriving trade in individual traffic. Transport personnel African Tuareg of Mali and Niger in the north through two days of shipment transportation from start to finish in the arid region of the Niger border. a number of dealers have an amount sufficient to pay 450 dinars a chuck on the mode set to its accumulation, which required long-established clothing works 70 dinars, or $ 50. He stressed in addition that "99 percent of the population" by the support of Gaddafi.

Southern Libya does not give the impression that the position of each of about chances for democracy to get a starting place, and an indication of this is the function of women. Very few women are on the Avenue of Sebha and Obara, yet altruistic organizations prosperous northern harmless women are missing currently. There are only 22 women in 60 people Obara civil society Taminek assembly ("agreement" in Tamazight). Khamin Sonia, 20, said that women "have no constitutional rights" in Tuareg culture.

Thursday, December 15, 2011

Functions of Civil Society



Objectives of Civil society



In the modern state and society especially in democracy, the role of civil society such as many-

First, civil society provide the basis for the limitation of state power here for the control of the state from society and, therefore, the democratic political institutions (political party) as the most effective means to exercise such control.

Secondly, the mobilization of civil society capable of detecting anti-democratic abuses prevalent in society and weaken the legitimacy of these regimes. Over the past two decades, civil society has played an important role in many democratic transitions.

Thirdly, civil society is essential to contain the inevitable power of democratic governance, protecting the power abuses and violations of laws and submit to the government of public safety, in essence, civil society is essential for the consolidation and maintenance of a democratic setup, rather than do the. Civil society can create limited to, moderation and willingness to compromise and respect for opposing points of view.

Fourth, living outside the realm of civil society, political party is able to render services as an articulation of interests, aggregations and representations for the sake of democracy. Civil society can create access to power for women and for racial and ethnic minorities.

Fifth, civil society through the creation of a sustainable and organized pressure from the grassroots level can help the development of political and social equalities and is possible, the quality and responsiveness of the legitimacy of democracy depends.

Sixth, civil society can play a vital role in recruitment and training of new political leadership. Civil organization and groups can be to create a democratic process for teaching and learning through the organization of seminars, debates, publications, etc.

After all, within national states, both government and private sector can be a little humbled 'growth of civil society leaders and worry less about elections and term limits and scandals. They are released simultaneously from the free market that would otherwise be commercially their mental impressions that leaves no space for the community or, in the spirit.

What is civil Society


Concept of Civil society



The civil society or civic space, occupies the middle ground between the government and the private sector. It is not no where you vote and is not to buy and sell, is where we talk about the spirit of h near a guard crossing or a benefit plan for our school community. In this field there are 'public' beings and share with government a sense of advertising and a focus on the overall purpose and the common good, but unlike a monopoly on legitimate coercion. Rather volunteer work here and live in society in this sense is voluntary and consists of freely associated individuals and groups, but unlike the private sector, aims at common ground and consensual mode of action. Civil society is the public without being coercive, voluntary without being privatized. It other words, civil society is the domain of the citizens of a domain as a mediator between private markets and big government.


According to Larry Diamond, "Civil society is an intermediary entity, standing between the private sphere and the state. This excludes individual and family life, inward looking group activities, income from commercial enterprises to do business and the individual political efforts to take control. So the general characteristic of the state of civil society involves the following:

1. Civil society stresses on the private rather than public ends.

2. Winning the formal power of the state is not the goal of civil society, rather than aspects of its concessions, benefits, policy changes, relief, repair, or a responsible manner by the State. Those civic organization and civic movements who want to change the nature of the state can be considered part of civil society, if the production of public welfare, instead of capturing the power is part of their activities. Thus, the movement for the peaceful democratic transition of spring typically civil society.

3. Consenters civil society more or pluralism and diversity.

4. Another feature is the impartiality of the civil society which means that no group in civil society seeks to represent the whole of a person or the interests of a community. Quite different groups representing different interests.

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

what is convention



definition of convention



Different writers have different describe of conventional formal definition. The highlight is the following -

K.C. Whear said that-" By convention is meant a whole collection of rules which through not of the law, are accepted as binding and which regulate political instituions in a country and clearly form of part of the system of the government."
(book- Modern constitution)

According to professor Diecy-" Convention are the rules of determining the mode in which the dictionary powers of the crown ought to be exercised.[book-Law of the constitution.]

G.Maeshall and G.C. Moodi said that-"conventions are the rules of the constitutional behavior which are considered to be binding by and upon those who operate the constitution, but which are not enfold by law courts."
[book-some problem of constitution]

According to professor Ogg-" convention are those understanding, practices and habits which alone regulate a large portion of the actual relations and operations of the public authorities."[book-English government and politics]

what is bureaucracy



Definition of bureaucracy



The portfolio consists of official personnel to organize and coordinate the public administration system is a bureaucracy. Some famous definition are below-

According to Professor Pfiffner and Presthus-" Bureaucracy is the symmetric organization of task and individuals into pattern which can effectively attain the end of group effort."

Almond and Powel said about bureaucracy -" When we speak of bureaucracy we are referring to the relatively elaborate organization through which the rules or rule-makers seek to implement there decision ."


Paul H. Appleby said- Bureaucracy is inseparable from the phenomenon of systemic interaction of many persons associated in common and complex terms."

Professore H. Finer give a nice definition of bureaucracy that-"The civil service is a professional body of official permanent paid and skilled.

Conclusion as the above transformation is called, the bureaucracy and the administrative system of the basic part of state, cabinet official and their operations are under the administrative system is permanent bureaucracy


NB: Linking sentence are not the part of this article.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

What is federal Government


Federal definition


Derivation from the Latin word Fedaus Federal States ingrain synonym. The Federal government is the structure of some small state.

In the light of the Constitution that the power distribution between he center and the provinces are given in the federal government.
The federal government's definition of the state of science.

some definition of Federal Government are below-

According to A.V. Diecy- "A political contrivance intended to reconcile nation unity with the maintenance of state rights."

Famous researcher of Federal government constitution Professore K.C. Wheare Said about Federal government-" By federal principle, I mean the method of dividing powers so that the central and regional governments are each, within a sphere, co-ordinate and dependent."


According to J.A. Corry-"Fereralism is the dual form of government calculated to reconcile unity with diversity."

Famous state scientist Finer said that, " A federal state is one in which parts of authority and power is vested in the local areas whole another part is vested in a central institution deliberately constituted by an association of the local areas."

Some Federal government countries are- United states of America, Canada, India, Switzerland and Australia,

What is Law



Definition of Law


Philosopher does not reach unanimity about law. So Some Philosophers describe about definition of law. Here are some below-

Famous State scientist Holland said about definition of law- "A law is a general rule of external human action enforced by a sovereign political authority."

Extreme philosopher Thoams Hobes said- "The civil law is the command of him which endowed with supreme power in the state concerning the future actions of his subjects."

John Austin said a little definition of law-" Law is the command of the suvereign."

According to the father of the political science Aristotle - "Law is passionless reason."

Former American president Woodrow Wilson define a nice and popular definition of law-"Law is that portion of the established thought and habit which has gained distinct and formal recognition in the shape of uniform rules backed by the authority and power of the government."

At last we can say that law is the some rules which directed government or intuitions.

What is Socialism



Definition of Socialism


Different sociologist and state scientist defined about socialism. Some of that is below-

According to Sellars-" Socialism is democratic movement whose purpose his securing of an economic organization which will give the maximum possible at any one time of justice and liberty."

H. Bland Said that," Socialism is the common holding of the means of production and exchange and the holding of them for the equal benefited all."

Maurice Cornforth said about the socialism-" Socialism is the social ownership of the means of production and their utilization to satisfy the material and cultural requirements of the whole society."

The light of the above definition, that socialism is a political system in which all elements of production and investment services are regulated by the state.

Definition of political party

Saturday, December 10, 2011

History Of United Nations


United Nations



(Concept Democracy)

The first name "United Nations", coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was used in the "Declaration of the United Nations" of 1 January 1942, for the duration of World War II, when the legislative body of 26 nations pledged their governments to move forward together with the war on the side of the Axis Powers .

Primary organizations were recognized at world level in order to force exact. Global Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union and the Universal Postal Union was founded in 1874. together they are at present particularly United Nations agencies.

(concept Constitution)

In 1899, the main meeting serenity in the world was detained in The Hague to elaborate instruments for resolving crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of engagement. The conference adopted the resolution of the dispute settlement procedure to encourage the stable and reliable global award, which began the effort in 1902.

The predecessor of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in a state of affairs related to land before the period of the conflict, and respectable in 1919 under the agreement of Versailles "to promote global collaboration and achieve harmony and security. "

The world of work association was also established under the Versailles as an affiliated company of the union. The League of Nations ceased its deterioration as a result of behaviors to postpone the Second World War.

(Concept Political science)

In 1945, the legislative body of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the meeting of the UN Global Association of the United Nations describing the contract. Delegates approved persons on the basis of proposals made by the legislative body of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States, in the month of August to October 1944. The contract was signed June 26, 1945 by the legislative body of 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the seminar, signed it later and became one of 51 single-member states.

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the contract was ratified by China, France, USSR, United Kingdom, United States, and a preponderance of other signatories. United Nations Day is known on October 24 of each year

(concept Globalization)

Monday, December 5, 2011

Interrelationship


Democracy and Development: An Interrelationship


* For the definition of political science)

An interrelationship: You can simplify the relationship between democracy and development. Some researchers argue that democracies are more guarantors or property rights than non-democracies and respect for property rights and contracts is essential for investment and growth. Democracies also appear to be better at managing and consolidating the economic reforms, because democracies are better to get the support of groups who lose out from reforms. Therefore, the relationship between democracy and development can be clarified as under:


First, democracies are better than authoritarian conflict management. Because the political space and the institution providing competition open to opponents hope that it can change without destroying the system. Some politicians argue that democracy brings political instability. undermining development. But empirical studies show the inverse relationship. Socio-political unrest and delivery of power occur more often than decreases in dictatorships, but not disturb the development. But history says that the war caused more economic hardship systemic conflict .. Consequently, they fall outside the economic tumult of the political crisis usually.

The report itself is in the opposite direction - that is, higher incomes to help the emerging democracies to survive once the likelihood of a return to authoritarianism declines as incomes increase. Higher incomes also contribute to political stability.


Second, democracies are better at avoiding catastrophes and management of sudden declines that threaten human survival. As Amartya Sen argued, democratic institutions and processes to provide strong incentives for the government to avoid famine.

Political incentives in democracies also seem to help companies to avoid disaster and above all other economic ruin the collapse of development. The worst economic crisis in democracies are much less in the survey were the worst dictator ship. True some of the highest economic growth was achieved in non-democratic government, particularly the East Asian tigers between 1960, when 1980. Authoritarian regimes, but also in the countries under economic ruin-in
buts Congo, Dad, and ordered him to Haiti Doc and Idi amins Uganda.

(* For the definition of PRESSURE group)

Third, democracies help spread the world about the critical health problems. such as the negative implications for women of a large number of births, the Brest and power benefits of the danger of unprotected sex in the context of HIV / AIDS. In these areas, an open and public debate can disseminate information and influence behavior. Free and open debate is the cornerstone of the constructive role that democracies can play in promoting development.

Fourth, political freedom and the opportunity to participate in community life and the skills that are important to human development as being able to EAD and write and be in good health. People without political freedom are much less choices in life. And be able to participate in community life in those fundamental to human existence.


Fifth, participation through collective agency promotes democratic governance as well as single agency. Are individual development as a collective action through social and political movement has often been an engine of progress, or to the central theme of human development, environmental protection, promoting gender equality, promotion of human rights. Visible, the political freedom to compare the people there to claim political and social rights. While education increases their ability to apply economic and social policies that the answer to their priorities.

In the application, the other two extremes stands the economic development that increases the probability of being a democratic country. materialization theory holds that the conversation toward democracy is an inevitable result if economic development, making the search of the most likely transition to democracy. However, some research and found that insulting in Latin America the level of economic development has no significant effect on the rate of change of an enemy of democracy of the seven measures of democracy. Even as high-income countries are more likely to be more democratic than other factors are taken into account. So democracy and growth are committable.

(* For the constitutional amendments, Bangladesh)

However. some studies also show a confusion effect Waezaring According to Tavares-Abad, greater democracy and human capital accumulation decreases in income inequalities, growth increases but also decreases the accumulation of physical capital increases the demand of government, following the growth.

Another says the discovery is that while the economic running of tribal dictatorships varies from excellent, democracies tend to cluster at the center. The fastest-growing countries have typically been dictatorships, but no democracy has ever performed as badly as the worst dictatorships. The same applies to the reduction of the property. So democracy is to avoid the worst consequences. while not guaranteed the best.

In the end, democracy and development are some things that the other municipalities. Both have more than a destination location - a promise rather than a list. But no society is never fully democratic or fully developed what the matter moves forward, and not slip back.

Note: * (asterisk) phrases are not part of this article. This link is where you can jut Related gate)

What is Pressure Group


Definition of Pressure Groups


Pressure group is not a political party. They Pressured government for their interest. So Some State scientist (Almond, Powel, H. Ziegler, David Truman and G. Wooton) Called it Interest Group.

Some Important Definition of Pressure group:

According to H. Zeiggler -"Pressure group is an organized aggregate which seeks to influence the context of governmental decisions without attempting to place its members in formal governmental capacities." (Book-Interest group of America)

(*If U need What is Democracy Click on link)

Almond and Powel said about Pressure group- " By interest group we mean a group of individuals who are linked by particulars bonds of concern or advantage and who has some awareness of these bonds." [Book-Comparatives politics]

According to Professor Alan R. Ball- " A pressure group can be defined as a group whose members hold share attitudes." He also said that "Interest group can be defined as those groups in which shared attitude of the members result from common objective characteristics. e.g. all the members of the groups are plumbers bank executives farmers etc. [ Modern politics and Government]

On the other hand S.E Finer This is a Lobby group. So some Philosopher means it Pressure group, Non-political and organized group

(Definition of political science

What is Political party


Meaning and definition of political party


Dear Visitors I am post some famous definition of political party. Few times ago I have posted some important definition of constitution, concept of democracy, definition of political science and Globalization.

Political party:

Political party is the main foundation of democracy.

According to Professor Barker -"A party is a particular body of opinion (otherwise it would not be party), which is none the less concern with the general national interest and which forms, and present to the choice of the electorate a program of general scope and width." {Book-The study of political science and its relation to cognate studies.}

Edmund Burke said about political party-" political party is the body of men united promoting, by their joint Endeavour's the national interest upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed."

R.M Macciver said political party is - "We may defined a political party as an association organized support of some principle of policy which by constitutional means endeavors to make the determinate of government."[Book-The Modern state,p-396]

According to R.C Gettel, He said about political party-"A political party consist of citizens more or less organized who act as political unit and who by the use of their voting aim to control the government and carry out their general policies."(book-politician science,p-327)

Professor Alan R. Ball define a easy and small definition about political party-"Political party may be defined by their common aim. They seek political power either single or in co-operation with other co-operations with other political parties.

Now we can say about political party that- Political party is which have some ideal and opinion to form a government and serve people.

What is democracy


Definition of Democracy


Dear readers Now I am posting some definition of democracy. Previous I have posted some definition of constitution, Political science and globalization. So let go for Define democracy.

According to Lord Bryce-"A government in which the will majority of the qualified citizens rules …say at least three fourths so that the physical force of the citizens coincides with their voting power."

C.F. Strong definite democracy as like- "Democracy implied that government which shall rest on active consent of the governed."

Professor Seeley says about democracy-"Democracy is a government in which everybody in share.

The most popular definition of democracy which define Former American President John Abraham Lincoln- " Democracy is that , government of the people by the people and for the people."

According to Professore Mazzini - Democracy means," The essence of democracy in the progress of all thought all under the leading of the best and wisest."

So we can say about democracy-Democracy is that the people is the all source of the power."

What is Political science



Definition of political science


Dear Viewers, Here I just post some Important Definition of political science. You can get here just some definition. Otherwise nothing.


"Politics" word comes from the Greek word "polis". This Means "City state"

The father of the political science Aristotle says, "Political science is the master of science."

According to Famous State scientist George Caltin- Political science is the study of the act of human and social control.
State scientist Professor laski says, "The study of polities concern itself with the life of man in relation to organized state."

Jarman Philosopher J.K Blunschli says, political science is "the science of state."

State scientist Paul Janet give a nice definition of political science. He says-"Political science is the part of social science which treats the foundations of the state and the principles of government."


According to Robson to his modern view- "Political science central of the straggle to gain and retain power , to exercise power or influence over others or to resist that exercise."

Dr. Garner said- "political science begins and ends of the state."

According to E.M White- Political science is that branch of human knowledge which deals with everything relating to a citizen, past, present, and future, local, national and human."


Note: Dear students-This article is help you just the definition of political science. or if the question is- What is political science then you can chose this definition for you answer.

Sunday, December 4, 2011

Concept of democracy and Development



Democracy and Development


Introduction: The former Secretary General Kofi Annan said: "Good governance is perhaps the most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development." Worldwide, more and more people realize that the meters for the development of governance that the rules of the institution and political processes play a key role in both economies are growing, the children go to Scholl, promote the development of human speech or back. There is a growing conviction that many development problems illustrate the situation of persistent governance. In the democratic system of governance effectiveness of the rules of political institutions and processes involving transparency, participation, responsiveness, accountability and the rule of law. All are important for development, especially since school usually ineffective causing damage to the poor and vulnerable. However, democracy development, especially human development, should also worry about whether the institutions and rules. for three reasons, must also worry about whether the institutions and rules are correct and if all people have a say in how they operate:


1. Participating in the rules and institutions that shape those communities is fundamental human right and part of human development.
2. More inclusive governance can be more effective
3. Participatory governance can also be equitable.

Concept and development of democracy: democracy is an ideal based on universally recognized values ​​common to all men regardless of cultural differences, political and social or economic. As an ideal, democracy aims to protect and promote the dignity and fundamental human rights instill social justice, promote the economic and social development.

Besides, democracy, as a logistics system, allow people to freely choose an effective honest, transparent and accountable government. Democracy is better on two main principles:

Participation and accountability: it presupposes a genuine partnership between men and women in business or society. Democracy is also inseparable from human rights is founded on the rule of law, for which the judicial institutions and independent, impartial, effective monitoring mechanism of the guarantors. Thus, prerequisites for a democratic government involves well-structured and well-functioning, including establishment of a parliament representing all parts of society. A company active cycle is also essential to encourage the host to the genuine exercise of participatory rights.

(If u need Middle East Politics Concept)

The concept of development is also multi-dimensional and constantly changing. At the current development is not simply the increase in growth of income per capita. Furthermore, the development is now for the people, the development, rather it means the development of the people themselves which is commonly known as human development. The traditional identification of human development index is to be criticized. Why, they overlooked the freedom of political participation in the life of those communities and physical security. But such capabilities as universal and fundamental as to be able to read or to enjoy good health. They are valued by all people and without them other choices are foreclosed.

What is Globalization?


Concept of Globalization


Introduction: Globalization is a term that has come to be increasingly used in recent years, and often so imprecise. This is a complex process that goes on for countries in the progress of international trade on a large scale and rapid communication. As a force that connects people worldwide increase in trade, investment, information technology and communication. Globalization is affecting business in domestic and international countries. Today, internationally dispersed socio-economic policy is turning into an integrated one. However, globalization has brought the mixture to influence the national economy, politics, society, ecology and the family of developing country like ours.

(if you need definition of Constitution please click the link)

Concept of globalization / What is globalization in general, globalization highlights the issue of territorial jurisdiction and the issues related to governance, economics, identity and community. around this theme, there are three common understanding of the term globalization.

The first, identified as globalizations an increase in cross-border relationship.

Second, globalization is an increase of the ratio of open border.

The Third, as globalization as an increase in the ratio carrier. In this regard, Professor Dr Nayyar said: "It 'not only associated with a movement of growing cross-border goods, services, capital, technology, information and people, but also with an organization of economic activities, which straddles national boundaries. "

However, for convenience of analysis, the manifestation of globalization, many may be grouped into six categories:

1. In the field of air transport communications, telephone, computer network, radio and television enable people anywhere in the world to have direct contact only with each other regardless of distance and territorial borders.

(For Middle East Related Article)

2. In the area of ​​organization, the end of the twentieth century saw a proliferation and expansion of businesses, civic associations and regulatory agencies that function as the operations of the border lakes.

3. To the movement of trade in goods and services most of the countries today is part of a marketing exercise world, trans.

4. In terms of financial globalization is the spread of various amounts of financial instruments that circulate electronically every where and every where in all the sake.

5. With regard to ecology, globalization has brought a number of anthropogenic alterations to the environment that are not bound by distance or limited by borders.

6. As for consciousness, people conceive the world as one place, such as affiliate with religious communities, race, faith etc.

(For need Bangladesh constitutional Amendments)

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Fifteenth amendment Of Bangladesh Constitution


Fifteenth amendment the last amendment



15th Amendment: The Parliament of Bangladesh, the Jatiya Shangsad passed the constitution 15th amendment bill 2011 on 30 June 2011 at amend it s constitution under which the caretaker government system for holding general election was scrapped. The bill which contains 15 proposals was passed by the division vote with a majority of 291-1.However amendments moved by ruling alliance opposing Islam as the state of religion and religion based politics were rejected. Islam has been retained as the state religion along -with Bismillahi-ar-rahmanir-rahim.


Salient feature of Fifteenth Amendment, Highlight of Fifteenth amendment: salient feature of the 15 amendment of the constitution passed by the parliament.
*Caretaker government system abolish.*Election to be held under incumbent cabinet Islam as state religion and Bismillahi-Ar-Rahmanir-Rahim retained.*Revival of article 12 to restore secularism and freedom of religion.*the people of Bangladesh shall be known as bangles as nation and citizens of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangladeshi.*Inserted article 7a and 7b in the constitution after the article 7 in a bid to end take over of power through extra-constitutional means.*Basic provision of the constitution are amendable.




*In case of dissolution parliament by any reason election be held within 90 days of such dissolution. Increasing the number of women reserve seats 50 from existing 45.*The supreme command of the defense services shall vest in the president and the exercise there of shall be regulated by law.*The chief justice shall be appointed by the president and the other judges appointed by the president in constitutional with the chief justice.

*The portrait of the father of the nation bangabandhu sheikh mujibur rahman shall be preserved and disply in the offices of the president, the prime minister, the speaker and the chief justice and in head and branches offices of government and semi-government offices. autonomous bodies, stativity public authorities, government and non government educational institution, embassies and mission of Bangladesh abroad.*Incorporation of historic speech of the father of nation sheikh mujibur rahman on march 7,1971, declaration of independence by bangabondhu after midnight of march 25,1971and proclametion of independence declared at mujibnagar on april10,1971.



Conclusion : It is clear that the last 40 years our constitution has experienced Fifteen amendments which is very high rate comparing to many other countries democratic countries. It prove the shorts slightness of our political leaders and the quiche shifting of our priorities. A constitution is a sign of national prestige. so we should keep it above our personal and political interest.

The Fourteenth amendment Constitutional

Fourteenth Amendment of constitution


14th Amendment: The constitution bill 2004 was passed by the Parliament in Bangladesh on may 16. 2005 incorporate in to the constitution set of probations that are at the center of a raging controversy. The bill was passed 226 to one.


The president assent it to on next day . The act come in the effect on December 8, 2004. Raise the retirement age of judges in supreme court: The Innocuous amendment has become controversial ,in particular the including that of the chief justice. This has a particular reason. The non party caretaker government under articles of 50b and 50c of the constitution , involves the last retired chief justice to become the chief adviser of the interim government.





Empower of the chief election commissioner to conduct the oath of the MPs: Ordinarily such provision is not necessary because the out going speaker or deputy speaker continues in office until a new parliament is selected. They hold a unique position in parliament style of government. with the dissolution of the government they do not lose their position because they are tied up with the continuity of the tenure of the parliament and not of the government. The following are the data at the glance about the amendment of our constitution till today.

Thirteenth amendment of Bangladesh Constitution

Thirteenth Amendment Constitution


The thirteenth amend of very important for this country. Recently Bangladesh supreme court cancel this amendment. But most of the Bangladeshi now movement to return this amendment

13th Amendment: The amend was accepted on 28th march 1996. It is said that a chief adviser with nine other advisers will form caretaker government. The chief adviser will be able to choose his advisers.


It provided for a non-party CARETAKER GOVERNMENT which, substitute as an temporary administration, would provide all potential assist and support to the Election Commission for investment the general election of members of the Jatiya Sangsad serenely, reasonably and fairly. The non-party caretaker government, comprising the Chief Adviser and not more than 10 other advisers,





would be together accountable to the president and would position dissolved on the date on which the prime minister entered ahead his office subsequent to the constitution of the original Sang sad major feature of the amendment --Maximum 70 years old, The latest retired chief justice will be selected if he is not being available then second latest retired chief justice. If not then a justice of appellate division of high court shall be selected.



Saturday, November 26, 2011

Twelfth Amendment Of Bangladesh Constitution

Twelfth Amendment


12th Amendment Bill- The bill was accepted on 18th September 1991. This amendment is second most important Amendment in the Bangladesh constitutional History. Political parties compromise to pass this bill. This amendment changes the form of the government.

Bangladesh returns to the parliament democracy. what is more, from side to side Article 59 of the constitution this act ensured the contribution of the people's legislative body in local government bodies, thus stabilizing the pedestal of democratic state in the nation.(Eleventh Amendment)


Salient Feature of the 12th amendment
Article 48 is amended and added that the president will not be the executive body and he or she will be elected by the vote of the Member of Parliament.
As a head of the state everything will be done in president's name he will be highly respected and remain the head of the state.
He or She (president) will talk to prime minister about everything except appointing a prime minister.
Article no 119 has amended and said that the election commissioner will service the election procedure. (Define Constitution)

Article no 50 was also amended and said that president can submit can submit his resignation to the speaker of the Parliament house.
Prime minister will able to distribute the ministers independently.
Article no 75 was amended and it is said that depending on the wining seats president can select leader of the largest party as prime minister. And request to form government.
Article 58 is Amended as that prime minister can advice any minister to resign if he does not obey prim minister's request the he/she(prime minister) can request President to fire the minister.(Nine and tenth amendment)

Eleventh Amendment of Constitution


Eleventh Amendment


Last I have posted nine and tenth amendment of Bangladesh Constitution. And Now I am posting The amendment of Eleventh.

11th Amendment Bill-This amendment has accepted on 13th august, 1991. This amendment proposes to face a new complicated situation. Then the government has to resign public upraising so a Caretaker government Govt. was formed making Chief Justice Mr. Shahabuddin Ahmed as Chief executive. (Forth Amendment)

Soon After the general election he nodded to back his own post of Chief Justice. This Amendment added the article no 21 that said that the acting president can back his own post and all the steps during the mention period is legal. This Act ratified, established and validated each and every one powers exercised, every one laws and ordinances promulgated, all commands completed and acts and belongings completed, (Eighth Amendment Of Constitution)

and proceedings and procedures in use by the vice-president as temporary president for the period of the period among 6 December 1990 and the day (9 October 1991) of captivating more than the office of the president by the new President ABDUR RAHMAN BISWAS, accordingly voted beneath the amended requirements of the structure. The Act too complete and completed potential the come back of vice-president Shahabuddin Ahmed to his earlier position of the Chief Justice of Bangladesh(6th and 7th amendment)

Nine And Tenth Amendment Of Constitution


9th and 10th Amendment


Previous I was discussed Eight amendment of Bangladesh Constitution.

9th Amendment Bill- the Amendment bill has passed 10th July 1989. This alteration provided for the straight voting of the vice-president; it controlled a individual in share the office of the PRESIDENT for two uninterrupted conditions of five years every one; it what's more provided that a vice-president strength be allotted in case of a opportunity, but the prior arrangement have to be permitted by the National Parliament.

10th Amendment Bill: This bill was passed 12th June 1990. The amended, between others, Article 65 of the establishment, as long as for reluctance of thirty chairs for the after that 10 years in the Jatiya Sangsad (national parliament)completely for women members, to survive selected by the members of the Parliament(six and Seven Amendment)

Eighth Amendment of Bangladesh Constitutional

8th Amendment


8th Amendment bill: This amendment has been accepted on 17th June 1988. In this amendment an article called 2(A) added saying that the state religion will be Islam.

It is also in this amendment that 6 benches of high court will be set up in six division Head Quarters. Amended the speech 'Bengali' into 'Bangla' and 'Dacca' into 'Dhaka' in Article 5 of the constitution. Amended Article 30 of the constitution by elimination reception of any designation, honors. reward or beautification from any distant state by any civilian of Bangladesh without the preceding authorization of the president. It probably will be prominent here that the Supreme Court consequently affirmed the alteration of Article 100 unauthorized given that it had misrepresented the fundamental configuration of the establishment.(Seventh Amendment)

Sixth and Seventh amendment of constitutional

Six and Seventh Amendment


Previous Was Discussed First to Fifth amendment of Bangladesh constitution and definition of Constitution. Now I am Posting 6th and 7th amendment of Constitution.

6th Amendment Bill- The Amendment was passed 8 July 1981. The Sixth adjustment Act was enacted by the Jatiya Sangsad with a outlook to amending Articles 51 and 66 of the 1981 formation


7th Amendment Bill: The Amendment was passed 10 November 1986. It amended Article 96 of the formation; it moreover amended the Fourth timetable to the constitution by inserting a original subsection 19 thereto, on condition that between others that all proclamations,


public statement guidelines, Chief Martial Law Administrator's commands, Martial Law convention, soldierly Law commands, military Law directions, ordinances and other laws completed for the duration of the stage between 24 March 1982 and 11 November 1986 (mutually days comprehensive) had been authentically completed and would not be called in query in or previous to any court or tribunal or influence on any position at all.

Fifth Amendment Of Constitution


5th Amendment Of Bangladesh Consttutiton


5th Amendment Bill: This amendment was passed to establish the legality of the work of then chief martial law Administration from 15 January to 6 April 1979.


The Amendment was passed 6th April 1979. This Act amended the Fourth agenda to the constitution by calculation a original subsection 18 thereto, which provided that all amendments, accompaniments, modifications, substitutions and omissions completed in the establishment for the duration of the period between 15 August 1975 and 6 April 1979


Verdict on it September 2005-The high court declared the 5th amendment of the constitution including martial law Regulation no VII of unconstitutional.


The High court declared at the same time the taking over of the power by all the governments august 15, 1975 to December 6, 1990 unconstitutional. But the court condoned all acts and legislations and action taken by those governments as passed and closed transaction with some exception.

Fourth Amendment Constitution Bangladesh


Constitutional 4th Amendment


4th Amendment Bill-By that amendment Bangladesh turned into presidential form of government from parliamentary form of govt. It was accepted on 25th January 1975 for facing a severe challenge of worst political and economic situation. Salient feature bellow-


a autocratic method in position of a combined arrangement was introduced; the powers of the jatiya sangsad were condensed; the judges misplaced a great deal of its freedom; the supreme court was underprivileged of its command above the fortification and enforcement of basic rights.


This Act (i) amended articles 11, 66, 67, 72, 74, 76, 80, 88, 95, 98, 109, 116, 117, 119, 122, 123, 141A, 147 and 148 of the foundation; (ii) substituted Articles 44, 70, 102, 115 and 124 of the establishment; (iii) amended part III of the formation out of continuation;


(iv) misrepresented the Third and Fourth agenda; (v) unmitigated the tenure of the first Jatiya Sangsad; (vi) completed particular necessities involving to the place of work of the president and its serving; (vii) inserted a original part, ie part VIA in the constitution and (viii) inserted articles 73A and 116A in the establishment.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Constitutional Amendments Bangladesh Second and Third


What is second amendment,Third amendment


Previous I Posted about first amendmendment bill. Now I am posting about Second amendment and Third amendment of Bangladesh constitution.

Second Amendment Bill-The 2nd Amendment second amendment date of this bill is September 20, 1973. This act in effect (i) amend Articles 26, 63, 72 and 142 of the foundation, (ii) the replacement of Article 33, and (iii) the placing of a part that is original IXA in the constitution. The requirements were completed across this alteration for the postponement of certain fundamental rights of people in an urgent situation.

(For Definition of Constitution)

Third Amendment Bill-The date of this amendment is the third bill November 23, 1974. The establishment of the 1974 Act was enacted November 28, 1974 through altering Article 2 of the Constitution by means of a vision as a result of a generous conformity between Bangladesh and India in admiration of switching enclaves confidence and charm of the boundary linesconnecting India and Bangladesh

Middle East The Focal Point Of International Politics


Middle East Politics


Introduction: The region has become the focal point of international politics during the second half of the twenty-first century is the Middle East. With the huge discovery of oil in some countries. Geo-strategic location and political configuration of the region led the forefront of the broader realms of international politics. Because in the post-war policy in the Middle East has always seems to be the region more unstable and strategically alarming in their world.


Border countries: The Middle East is made up of 22 countries with 19 f 3 are Arabs and Iran, Israel and Turkey are not Arab. The region covers the area and in countries from Morocco and Algeria is in the west to the south. Total area of ​​the region is 5,000 square miles with about thirty people corer which ninety percent are Muslims.

Factor that makes the region the focus of international politics: the important factor that has made the Middle East more crucial in the realms of the largest international politics and economics can be summarized under the following heads:


1. Geo-strategic position of the region is very important strategically center that can provide a lot of weight for the country that controls it in the broader system of power relations, because

First, is located at the intersection of three Asian countries. Africa and Europe, and bordered by Turkey, Pakistan and the Horn of Africa. Thus, the presence of a hegemonic superpower in the region of half its location in the system boundary of the balance of power.


Secondly, the communication channel in the region are more favorable from the point where you can move easily around the world by any means of communication, road, air, sea etc. fringed by five seas and two oceans, the region easily accessible by sea. The sea as a short crossing turkish satisfied, the Suez Canal, Bub-al-Mandeb and the Strait of Hormuz to international communication are famous for water, trade and commerce.

Thirdly, the former superpower Soviet Union and the European super powers are adjacent to the region. Even the threat of a rival Islamic state also located in the western region. The region thus is considered the most crucial in international politics and relations.


2. Oil-the lifeblood of industrial societies: The former defense secretary Harold Brown we considered constituents of oil from the Persian Gulf as the lifeblood of modern industrial society and we believe that this loss to the economy of the west and the industrial Far East would be a coup aimed proportion tropics.

(Department of State Bulletin, vol 80no, 2038)

In oil present in the UK North Sea is at its peak, the giant field in Alaska, the former Soviet Union, Mexico, Venezuela and Norway are all past peak. The U.S. supply of oil has been falling since 1970. The only oil producer with a resource that may be able to keep the oil flowing in the world market to a near-constant level is the five Middle East OPEC Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and UAE. So, almost super-political and economic power and also the countries always try their best to ensure the flow of cheep oil and some times result in clashes between them.


3. Explosion in the region: The Middle East has undoubtedly been the scene of a greater degree of war between the state than any other region of the world in the period after 1945. The invention of the Arab Israeli wars of Iraq of its two neighbors. -1956 The Suez crisis and turmoil in Afghanistan has seen to that. At the moment all over all the super powers, especially America is playing the role of conspiring to safeguard their interests behind the geo strategic and economic threshold of peace making is discussed. The region therefore has become the most explosive region of the world, both internally and extreme threat to the largest regional security and makes the world worried.



4. A potential market for arms trade: The medium is the destination of most arms exports, creating huge fit for the politically powerful producer of arms exporting countries like USA, Great Britain, Russia, France and others. The countries of the region spent annually about 15 present of their GDP on the purchase of weapons. The main reasons behind the arms in the region are as follows:

a. Arms sales are an important component of the construction of political alliances, especially with the military leadership of the country's beneficiaries;

b. There is a strategic advantage from having to make the system between printability superpower on the ground;

c. Arms sales are a means to support military industries in the face to deceive demand in Western countries;

d. Smooth transformation of oil for weapons and arms to ensure the smooth flow of oil.

So, all the super powers are not interested in maintaining peace in the region, but the situation violates that require more hands to hold the other.


5. Religious and ideological concern: East is the birthplace of three monotheistic religions, Islam, Christianity and Judaism that has played the role of history and politics of the region. Thus, the most sacred places of the three monotheistic religions are in this region that threatens the world go to the west after the collapse of the USSR. This ideological configuration of the region made the hotbed of world politics.

6. The Palestinian question: the conflict of long standing with regard to Palestine between Jews and Arab Muslims Israelite is a major concern in the realm of international politics grating. Since the beginning of each super power especially American support for Israel and the Arab refusal to accept its existence in the region has resulted in some wars and conflicts to date as it appears in the region. Even Israel is regarded as the cancer of world peace.


7. The incidence of terrorism in common with the third world as a complex relationship with violent metropolitan countries and the tension generated within the societies of the Middle East for this contact. have led to recurring waves of popular discontent and mobilization agilest external forces of domination and against those who collaborated with them. Such anti hegemonic, anti-Western impulses some results in time hijacking, kidnapping and bombing of civilian facilities and such Western actions carried out primarily by militants and western variety of ideologies. When the American war against Afghanistan by the name of eradicating terrorism, has created a dimension of tension in the region.


8. Zone likely World War III: The 1970 provided years after event after event that has put the Middle East in the foreground of international politics. The OPEC price rises to 1971-1973, the revelation of Iran, the Arab-Israeli wars, the Iran of 1980-1988 wars in Iraq and the Gulf War of 1990-91. After the collapse of Soviet communism, the invention of Western red menace new enemy, the Muslim world as a Green Peril, has helped to create enmity between the Muslim world and the West, which is manifested in the development with the recent tragedy in New York and the American attack on Afghanistan. So the American war against the Muslim world under the name of eradicating terrorism, the DC voltage and internal strife in Palestine Middle East etc. You did a land likely World War III.


Note: The world is now divided into specific regions based on several criteria, such as strategic geographical importance of diplomatic and economic-South and South-East Asia, Latin America, Africa, the Middle East. Among them the importance of the Middle East is far extended, multidimensional and multifaceted that transcends geographic boundaries. She has gained so much importance and precise placing this in world politics today that non-intelligent, independent and pragmatic foreign policy can be formulated by any country, east or west, large or small, developed or underdeveloped, Muslim no Muslim past and ignoring the the Middle East.


In this new country, the Middle East not only maintain its importance and its meaning can be increased for this ship of Muslim leaders. The regions oil resources allow the region to train its important for the world economy. However, very nervous about the future role of the region largely depends on the unity of the countries of the region and their success in removing and misunderstandings that exist today. Thus, the oil rich Middle Eastern countries should no longer be pawns in the hands of imperialist powers. They should take a lesson from the past harsh and bitter.

First Constitutional Amendments Bangladesh


Constitution Amendment


The constitutional amendments of the Constitution of Bangladesh has been changed over a period of a few. The next version is epigrammatic of these acts and commands. The total amendment of Bangladesh constitution is 15. Here I describe the most important changes First amendment Bellow -

(If you need definition of Constitution)

First Amendment Bill-This was the first amendment to our Constitution. Manoaranjan Dhar is presented. It was about the trial of war criminal. Date of this amendment is July 15, 1973. Amended exhibit 47 of the Constitution by inserting an additional section that allowed the hearing and prosecution of any individual accused of 'genocide, crimes aligned with war crimes and other crimes civilization or act in the world. Following Article 47 Article 47A was inserted by specifying inapplicability of the original positive elementary constitutional rights in personal property of individuals.

Definition of Constitution



What is Constitution?


Some definition of constitution I describe bellow

About the definition of constitution Aristotle Says, "Constitution is the way of the life the state has chosen for herself."

According to the Lord Bryce "The aggregate off laws and customs under which the life of the state goes on."(Book-Essay on Flexible and Rigid Constitutions)

Austin Ranney Says " A constitution is the whole body of fundamental rules, written and unwritten, and extra-legal, according to which a particular government operates."

According to K.C Wheare-"The constitution is the body of rules which and the organs through which government power is exercised."

C.F Strong says: " A constitution may by said to be a collection of principles according to which powers of government, the rights of the government and the relation between the two are adjusted."

Considering the above definitions we can say-"Constitution is the some basic rules that tell us how the country will be governed, how the citizens will be dealt with, what wil be the relations among they pillars of government."