Tuesday, September 11, 2012

The politics of Bangladesh

Politics in Bangladesh

There is a close relationship between the following culture of a society and development of democracy in it. Democracy, as a scheme of government, is greatly exaggerated by the cultural environment keen on which it is introduced. Robert D. Putnam discusses four features of the civic political culture of regions in which democratic administration worked well.
1. civic engagement, the prospect that individuals and groups are living to the interest of others;
2. A high degree of following equality, defined as a social background in which horizontal relations of reciprocity and collaboration predominate over vertical relationships of power and dependence.
3. High level of solidarity, faith and tolerance enabling people to cooperate with different others for the sake of rising public goods.
4. Dense and overlapping associational being developing the skill of cooperation and habit of communal responsibility. So, a democratic political science culture involves-
(I) Mutual trust in the middle of the citizens and an included national political identity;
(II) A sense of national pride in the following system;
(III) A felling of free political message;
(IV) Partisan approach, not indifference;
(V) Existence of participatory attitude and perceived ability to participate;
(VI) Peoples confidence in administration and political institutions; and
(VII) Homogeneity and plurality of civilization.
In light with the above mention criteria of the democratic/civic following culture, the basic characteristics or skin of the political culture of Bangladesh may be outline as under:
A. Distrust and disintegration: mutual trust involves the extent to which member of a political scheme have trust and confidence on their man political actor. In Bangladesh, politicians lack mutual faith and thus the party in authority is always unwilling and mined it insecure to twist over governmental authority to their opponents. Thus, there as always a crowd of tension and frustration in the middle of the politicians. Our politicians lack the faith in the fundamental trustworthiness of persons involved in politics and an intelligence of belongingness in the similar political group of people which result into fragmentation and disunity. Thus, peaceful competition and alteration of power contain been replace by agitation, boycott of determination, vote rigging etc.
B. Restricted political communication: the contribution of ordinary people in democratic following requires that they have to have the feelings that it is safe to do so. For this, there be supposed to have a unrestricted communication procedure which involve—
1. a free push media;
2. interest groups free from lawmaking and party control;
3. regular, free plus fair electrons;
4. Effectual law and order situation.
C. Lack of partisan feelings: democratic devotion implies partisan feelings, and not indifference. It implies that community must have convictions and a feeling about the apt cause of political artisanship is very unreceptive which jeopardizes the keenness to accept the friendliness. Thus, partisanship results into recurrent intra-party and inter-party clashes.
D. Lack of participatory belief and capacity to participate: a democratic political civilization should consist of a set of beliefs, attitude, norms, and perceptions and like that support contribution. In Bangladesh, the norms of participation are not extensive is not effective. Even most is acquainted with that they ought to contribute only to vote in election. Particularly, the political culture of rural ample may be termed as parochial.
E. Lack of people’s confidence in government: People’s self-assurance in government and following institutions is a significant criterion of developed democracy. Here, popular support and confidence may be centered approximately three areas : disillusionment—
1. with politicians;
2. with following parties; and
3. With political institution.
In Bangladesh the level of people’s confidence in administration, politicians, affectivity of policies and other following administrative and political institution and services is very low. Politicians and administrator are so corrupted that natives always try to refrain themselves from any treaty as well as intimation with them.
F. National pride: nationwide pride is an important constituent of political culture which unites individuals and makes patriots. The people of Bangladesh feel arrogant of their national flag and nationwide anthem. They also have huge respect for their Bengali language and people.


Sunday, July 1, 2012

Policy of Bangladesh

Foreign Policy of Bangladesh

world, recent global cooperation and rivalry. Also the forces of globalization have made people jump to get closer to each other. Today, no country can escape from the area of ​​international border. A little 'all countries to relate with each other within certain internationally recognized rules, and customs system. However, every state has some policies and programs to keep his other relatives. These policies and programs to decide the positions of a state planning in the wider international political, economic, cultural and military. Like other countries, Bangladesh also has a foreign sovereign policy which is characterized by detachment, non-interference and friendship to all malice to none, and so non-alignment. However, in the early days of his appearance at the meeting, Bangladesh has tried to compete with malice changes in international political-economic and cultural changes away with its policies and programs. In this view the present government has given importance and BNP ward away the political and economic diplomacy.

The core values ​​of the foreign policy of Bangladesh: Article No. 25-1
(1) of our plant, he says, the purpose of our foreign government will be-
(2) to rule other high national public opinion and equality;
(3) Not to get in the way that any other country's internal matter;
(4) Thinking in key Pacific is an international problem;
(5) For international laws high opinion of the United Nations and deed;
(6) Depending on the base system;
a) Our state can not support any application;
b) Our state will test for total and universal disarmament;
c) Bangladesh will oppose imperialism, colonialism and apartheid;
d) Bangladesh will take the voice of the disadvantaged and distorted.
Article 25 (1) 2 say, Bangladesh will try to take his relationship with other Muslim countries.

Ingredient of the foreign policy of Bangladesh: Although Bangladesh is a sovereign state, sovereign and independent foraging has a policy, there are a number of ingredients of foraging rule in Bangladesh. Some of the ingredients impotent foreign rule in Bangladesh are as under:
1. Geo strategic place: The geo-strategic location of a country is an important ingredient of the rule of a foreign country. Thus, Bangladesh as a small country surrounded by India and the Bay of Bangle, should consider his ego-strategic position. We can not ignore the fact that we have a neighbor like India, which is stronger in all aspects of Bangladesh.

2. Economic dependence and interests: the national attention is considered the only reason behind making the foreign domination of a country. But the domination of a foreign state in developing countries like Bangladesh, mainly regulated by its economic dependence. Most of their policies are going to accelerate economic gain, in other words, aid and investment away.
3. Religious belief: No State can not ignore the religious attitude of their people in making foreign policy. Like other countries, Bangladesh has also the spiritual belief of his people into account in its distant politics. So, none of the governments since independence dared to ignore the Muslim world a bit 'all governments tried to explain that I am more concerned about Islam and Muslims around the world, particularly in the Middle East.

4. Configuration of international power: Although Bangladesh is not the center of the super powers or major powers and regional powers, has some significance as a leader of the Islamic state in the developing world. Even for his ego-strategic position and the normal resources, countries like the United States are concerned about our political science and family for granted. Thus, in making its foreign rule, Bangladesh can not ignore the great powers.
5. Regional configuration of power: Bangladesh is one of the players named regional policies. However, Bangladesh does not tend to hold any of the regional powers, particularly India and Pakistan. Rather, Bangladesh always tries to maintain an impartial position. What is most important is that the regional government has the necessary relevance to the foreign domination of Bangladesh.

6. Membership in international organizations: Bangladesh is a partner of almost all international organizations, including UN, NAM, OIC. Thus, Bangladesh is respected by the statutes, covenants and treaties and the values ​​of these and other related organizations.

7. National History and Politics: Bangladesh has a wonderful history of her own. Furthermore, the internal political affairs of the province sometimes shorter or Form control to a particular policy.
Current Trends: Trends in the distant politics and relations of Bangladesh may be listed as below.

First, what is the state to reorganize its distant rule in light of its socio-economic, geo-political and political-economic world. Here, the state is doing not stop his efforts to strengthen its relations with Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia.

Thirdly, Bangladesh has remained strong on its principle of maintaining a good relationship with neighbors. In this high opinion, Bangladesh is trying its best to have a good connection with India in spite of the observations and irritating and antagonistic actions by his peers. In extra compensation, Bangladesh is making continuous efforts to collect its relationship with Myanmar, and other SAARC Strilakos was that the clarity provided by the chief of the political views of governments and Strilakos Minter.

Fourth, Bangladesh strappingly opposes both terrorism wall as foreign exp. Thus, Bangladesh has hated Twin Tower terrorist attack as well as several British-American belligerence against Iraq. However, some countries together with the United States and India at times, Bangladesh is producing its efforts to make the world community to understand that we have no family member with the terrorists in Bangladesh and there is no assembly involved in international terrorism.
Fifth, Bangladesh is attributed to be the immature organization of an organization like SAARC. But the organization has lost its integrity and affection mainly due to the carelessness of India. Thus, some of the foreign policy experts are participating in the taste of a regional organization ASEAN as a substitute.

Options for Bangladesh: the international standard is very complex and now the countries of the world in danger if he is the scapegoat for upcoming articles on terrorism in the case of reactions. Thus, Bangladesh as a Muslim state must do its foreign rule very carefully so that no one could give its position as a Muslim healthy condition. Thus, Bangladesh should take into consideration aspects folioing in making its policy at a distance.
First, although there are a number of conflicting issues between Bangladesh and India, we must do our effort to avoid any conflicts. However, we adhere to discover alternatives to India as China, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia as local partners.
Secondly, the anti-Bangladesh position of India should be addressed through embassy means that instead of testing of services. For this, we should be sensitive to our relationship with the Western powers. In addition, we protect our political influence between the external shape illegitimate.

Thirdly, the change here our diplomacy is positive that we are next economic diplomacy towards the east. More importantly, economic growth, the system can be easily communicated and recent developments imagine a bright future for relations Bangladesh abroad.
Fourth, Bangladesh has a potential to build a network message with China and some other Southeast Asian countries. In this regard, a road could be boiled up from the listing in Singapore through the Myanmar and Kualalampur. Even Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam could also be included in this road network.

Fifthly, we have a join ASEAN. It was noted that now India is the partner interview AEAN.
Seventh, since the inference, marinating a good relationship with the Middle East is considered as an important ingredient of Bangladesh foreign policy. So, in this period of transition in the state policy in the Middle East, Bangladesh must be careful of his policy in this region.
In the fen, we came to the cane close that third world Muslim guard, Bangladesh have some limits to make its political force. Thus, none of them could be ignored. Rather, we must understand our priorities in accordance with the demand of time and situation. So, we must be plastic with regard to our foreign policy and related

Millennium development goals


in this twenty-first century, a majority of the topics discussed widely throughout the earth is Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In September 2000, the collection at the United Nations Millennium peak, world leaders agreed to an amazing document, the Millennium Declaration. It was a historic achievement, not only for the breadth of the statement relates, or his frank assessment of the development issue, but because he committed the global community for a solid program for the development and specific person. Rather than simply agree that development should continue the length of much the same lines as before, or to justify extensive improvements, the statement demanded that the world has set its sights higher and try to eight specific objectives , most of which were reached by 2015 and for which there are 48 hours, usually numerical indicators. Which later came to be known as the Millennium Development Goals are?

1) Eradicate extreme poverty and acute hunger
2) Achieve universal primary education Total
3) Promote gender equality and empower women
4) Reducing adolescent mortality
5) Improving the health hot
6) the battle against HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7) Ensure environmental sustainability
8) Develop a global development

The eight goals to stand for a partnership between the country developed and developing countries in developing a strong mindset, as was the Millennium Declaration, "to create an environment at national and global levels alike, which is conducive to development and 'eradication of poverty ". Support for communication at the state level includes close consultation by UNDP with members of the UN Development Group, other members of the United Nations, the World Bank, OECD and the INF and local associations and experts. The United Nations Department of Economic and business community is coordinating reporting on progress towards the target at the global level.
Improvements: of several, the performance of Bangladesh was well again after the initial forecasts that the country is political independence. The main theme was lonely at the time of negative images. The accounts of progress in getting the country, but shows rapid improvements in lots of indicators.
First, Bangladesh has achieved impressive triumph in the control of the inhabitants. Rate of total wealth (TFR) fell from 6.3 in 1975 to 3.3 in 1997-99. Consequently, the rate of population growth fell from 2.9 per cent per annum in the mid-seventies to 1.5 percent in the late nineties. The remarkable feature of this rapid decline was that had been achieved not only at a low level of income, but also at a low level of literacy.
Second, humanity is often regarded as the criterion to judge the economic success and failure of the nation. Bangladesh has shown a remarkable triumph in that sense, especially in a child falls and infant mortality. The rate of infant humanity fell from 153 000 deaths-head in live birth in 1975 to 94 deaths in 1990, declining more than 66 in 2000. The pace of progress in infant and ender-five mortality decreased through the nineties was among the best ever in the developing world.

Third, Bangladesh witnessed significant result in the preparation and overcoming the phenomena of hunger and the threat of the syndrome cluster of famine conditions prevailing vulnerability to natural disasters. Collectively, the country has almost reached the goal of appealing self-sufficiency in rice production with a refined area in decline. Cereal production has increased at a trend rate of growth of 2.4 percent per year accompanied by the early eighties and late nineties. This was mainly achieved from side to side the expansion of rice areas under high-yielding varieties (HYVS). Although the general problem of food security remains a decade after it challenge, rose to ruin the preparation, combined with expanded capabilities include played a key role in ensuring the minimum rights in islam of food for the poor during times of disaster.
Fourth, Bangladesh has with impressive gains in reducing child malnutrition rates over the past 15 years. According to the Agency of Statistics Bangladesh (BBC) data, the rate of slowing growth for brood in the age group 6-71 months, which was 69 percent in 1985/86 fell to 49 percent in 2000.
Fifth, Bangladesh has achieved notable success in integrating women into the development path. Women in Bangladesh have played an important role in the success of micro-credit, exports of clothing on hand, reducing escalation of the population, increasing child nutrition, and to extend primary education. Recent evidence also suggests that the country is close to achieving gender equality in life expectancy at birth of labor, as well.

Sixth, low-income country has generally been characterized not only by weak, but weak and civil agreements and grass-roots and activism. Bangladesh has been an outlier helpful in this regard. The advance made by NGOs and civil society organizations such as the free alternative mechanisms as well as verbal civic institutions have played a significant role in U-turn of fortunes. The appearance of these actors played a partially compensatory position in a context of weak state institutions and markets. Social entrepreneurship across catalyze the development roles of the private organizations such as community-based organizations (CBOS) and the organizations intended for the poor (NGOs and CSOs) has been a significant strategic continue to play an important role development of a pro-poor development program in Bangladesh.

Seventh, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards a viable what is democracy transition. Ensuring free and fair elections, through non-partisan Government concierge was a significant policy innovation in a context of democratic institutions in the country pathetic. There has also been important gains in terms of increased participation of women and electoral politics, freedom and civic organizations pushing increasingly more active. Although the process of democratization has yet to take deeper roots, the success achieved so far is not insignificant that requires a lot of observers to term Bangladesh as a knowledge model of Muslim democracy flattering.

Perspectives: Improving the Bangladesh stands out even in comparisons between countries. This supports the scheme that the highest human expansion social outcomes can be achieved even at a lower rank of national income per capita. Performance was relatively mild enlargement of Bangladesh with a growth of GDP per capita relative to the 2 per cent per annum. The presentation of growth began to improve only in the nineties. Similarly, the speed of income-poverty decrease was very slow. During the period supported by the early eighties and early nineties, the presence of income-poverty declined by 0.8 per cent in Pakistan and 3.6-to-head in Srilanka.

Although income growth slow and modest rate of decline in income poverty, the results of Bangladeshis in the vast field of individual development were faster and, in many respects, remarkable, although the level of shared hardship in Bangladesh is still high, the pace of improvement has to be encouraging. Indeed, the pace of development in reducing TFR, lowering the level of under-five mortality, and lowering the presence of child malnutrition is not only higher than the average record of progress in less developed countries, but also stands out against the general background South Asia.

This strategy: social progress rather high to a low level of income is also claimed by the contrast of predicted (for a given level of income per capita) with the actual values ​​of the indicators achieved by the country. Comparison with the predicted values, lower the rate of expansion of the healthy population as TFR and CBR, higher for life expectancy to infant immunization coverage, and lower IMR. While there has been substantial progress on the expansion of literacy, the pace is to be accelerated.

Bangladesh has isolated of the most vulnerable economies, characterized by very high density of people, low resource base and high incidence of disasters provided. These have negative implications for long-term savings, assets and growth. This definition of the skin gives some uniqueness to the formulation of the strategy to reduce shortages.

This project addresses three fundamental tasks the nation:
The first emphasis on the need for consolidation to avoid the trap of development experience in the past (the task of sustaining the gains optimistic).
The second refers to the constraints of avoiding the pitfalls of development experiences of history (the task of overcoming the negative tendencies).
The third notice refers to the new challenges that the state faces in the context of globalization, as well as new evils that arise from the current phase of internal development (the task of addressing the challenges the original).

The success of the reduction of poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) would depend on the degree to which the three tasks are addressed in the next decade.
initial conditions. This would be especially important in the context of overcoming the persistent economic gloom and despair Afro-pessimism is a case in point, which is often is often cited in relation to disadvantaged parts of the world newborn.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Rights In Islam

Women's rights In Islam

Introduction: Islam is a complete code of life. But he says that, although Islam provides women with rights and privileges sure, but can not observe equality between the sexes. In fact Islam is the only religion that the woman is in the same position with the man. As a general belief, the Holy Koran is addressed to mankind as a whole and not to one of the two sexes in particular. The rights and responsibilities of the male are equal to those of women, but are not corresponding with them. Because of their difference from the biological point of view, the man began in many aspetti.Che What does equality mean? : Equality can usually request that-Men and women should have the same field activities; - These support the same responsibilities in all spheres of life, and in the same place-They società.Ma their physiological structure, the their duty entrusted by nature and psychological disposition does not support these affermazioni.Così, equality between the sexes does not mean the same rights and same obligations and responsibilities fairly equal in the light of Holly Quran means fair good man and a woman known by Allah according to the needs of the natural world of which he is a producer of Allah.(Freedom of Press)

Gender equality in Islam: the Qur'an is very specific construction man and woman equal in rights, duties and responsibilities. And enunciate all aspects of human life around the world, man and woman were properly positioned in their respective position in thought with their opportunities and vincoli.1. Woman-the equal partners of men: women are the equal partner of women in this land and later. As Allah said, are your garment and you are their leader, (2:187). In another verse, Allah says: "you enter the courtyard, you and your wives, in beauty and joy." (43:70). so, the man and woman are treated equally with every boss altri.2 Quran. Some of origin: the man and woman are quite equal to any further in their origin, their home as healthy as their place of return and as such similar rights to free and equal. The Holy Quran says: "He is formed (all) by one person, then created 'as the natural world, his mate ... (39:6) .3. Responsibility, rewards and punishments: A woman is equal to gentleman in bearing personal responsibility and ordinary and receipt of reward and punishment for his good manners.( Students Politics)

The Holy Quran says: 'And they accepted their supernatural beings and respond to them:' Never will I lose any of you work, both the ladies or women, you are members one of another ... "In another verse Allah says:" as for the thief, male or female, cut off the hands sue.4. rights to own property: the 'Man and woman are equal in human rights, to own property and arrange as you want. They are free to mortgage it, to give it on lease, let, buy or sell or exploit for its refund. The Holy Quran says: 'And men a fortune from what they earn and to women a fortune from what they contain earned "(4:32) .5. Rights of succession: In pre-Islamic society. The woman was not only disadvantage of a share of the inheritance, but he was considered property to be inherited by men. Islam completes his heir. If you are a partner or mother, sister or child, who receives a certain share of the property of the deceased king. The Holy Quran says: "The man belongth share what parents and near relatives to leave and up to belongth women a share of what parents and near relatives leave." (04:07) In some instances man receives two shares and one woman. The reasons for such a distinction can be summarized as below: Firstly, it is man's duty by law to assume all financial responsibilities and maintain his family, wife and relations private.In Secondly, the woman is monetarily fixed and previsto.In Thirdly, the woman gets more in the form of dowry, etc. continuitàIn Fourthly, if the woman was given equally to men, you could remove the man who has had more responsabilità.(Leadership)

6. Married life: Islam has recognized women as an associate of the men in their married life that enable them to lead a full of mercy, love and affection. The Holy Quran says: 'And in the midst of his figure is that he has created for you by yourself, that you may dwell in tranquility with them, and made love and compassion between the (hearts)' ... (30:74) In another verse, Allah says: "And the people who pray," Our Lord! Grant us wives and children who will be the calm of our eyes, and give us (the grace) to lead the righteous (25:74) In another verse, Allah says: "To live by them (the wives) of a foot equality and goodness "(4:19) is also enjoined:" And do not forget liberality among you "(2:237) .7. State nursery: In Islam, caring have given a certain degree on the father who is clear from the Hadith. In the Holy Quran along with the priest and the mother was treated in the same way to be privileged by their sons and daughters. The Holy Quran says. "We have enjoined on man sympathetic to his parents, the pain made her look after him and beat him in pain she gave birth." (46:15 of 17:23, 04:36) 8. The guilt of original sin: Unlike other style beliefs, Islam does not blame Eve alone for the first sin. The Koran makes it very clear that both Adam and Eve sinned. The Holy Quran says. "But the mail caused them (both) to divert there or after them and expelled from the (happy) state in which they are" (2:36) (Secularism)

9. Veil: Islam has completed the requirement for male and female to keep purdah. As the Qur'an says: "Tell the believing men that they should lower their gaze and protecting their modesty, that will do a better cleaning for them, Allah is well acquainted with everything they do. (24:30)." And to say that women should reduce their watch and guard their modesty. And they should not display their beauty and ornaments bars that seem the same .... (24:31) But the only difference between men and women is in the form and degree of purdah because of the difference in the structure corporea.10. Right of witness: In some examples to bring the viewer to some civil contracts, two men are required or one man and two women. The reasons for this difference can be summarized / grouped as follows: a. This is no indication they are women inferior to men rather a measure to guarantee the rights of the parties soffocanti.b. Women lack experience in practical life that can cause damage to any aggregation sociale.c. If the woman forgets another amazing would ricordato.d. Or, if you make a mistake due to lack of experience, information, help each other to the right of lei.e. The suicide rate is among the women who indicate they are more emotivi.(Micro Credit)

Conclusione: now it is clear the status of women in Islam is the first time high and realistically suitable to her character. His rights and duties of man are the same people, but not automatically or absolutely identical with them. If she is deprived of everything that is in some respects is fully compensated for this through more things in many other aspects. His human rights correspond perfectly with his duties. The balance flanked by rights and duties is maintained and not overweight, the other sides. The whole woman was known by the following Quranic verse: "And women shall have rights equal to the rights against them according to return? Be fair, but the man has a sum over them (2:228. Moreover, the Qur'an says: "The man is with the indictment of women .... (4:34) But this claim does not have a degree and title of supremacy or an agreement or a dominant position over her . 's just the exchange of letters with extra chores and give man a little' reimbursement for its commitments illimitati.Undo edits

to know about what is electronic government

Friday, June 1, 2012

Freedom of press

what is freedom of press

The Importance of Freedom of press
Introduction: Press is a extremely important mass-media in the modern world. Especially in modern self-governing world for public consciousness press is live an important role. The here world is known as global village. Press is the best method to know about this whole globe. Without this for understanding about own state and political system, there is no alterative of press. Without freedom of the push, it will not be able to give real news. As a result, liberty of press is necessary for any self-ruled country.( about student politics)

Meaning of freedom of press: Liberty of press is a very important discuss is sue in the modern world. We mean by autonomy of press that freedom of publications by media, especially in case of journalists. In the modern world newspaper plays important role for public statement, but when journalists are not able to give suitable news, people will not be able to find real rumor, in case of developed of real social equality and for the establishment of autonomous system there is no alternative of autonomy of press.(what is leadership)

Importance of Freedom of Press:
No democratic system can not exist without freedom of press. Freedom press is an important per-requisite for democratic system as:
1. Organizing People’s View: For Organizing People’s View, freedom of press is very vital. When press is free it can give people the real news and they can take the right verdict and they organize for real objects.

2. Democratic system: in a democratic classification the connection of every set is key. For a strong democracy, every group must be able to criticize the functions of regime which is against the interest of people. So, for ensuring self-governing system, autonomy of public opinion is crying need. Press is the only way to articulate the civic opinion. As a result, without the freedom of press not any will be able to coherent the public opinion.

3. Expression of Public Opinion: in modern governing system public view is very chief issue. For the existence of any state, the articulation of public view is crying could do with. Press is the only way to articulate the public opinion. As a result, exclusive of the freedom of press none will be able to clear the public opinion.

4. Ensuring People’s Consciousness: without people’s realization about their right and responsibility, the society will not drive in a proper way. Press can make sure such type of job press needs freedom, without freedom of press it is calmly impossible.(definition of secularism)

5. Securing Human Rights: No society can develop without securing person rights. For ensure these human rights, press can play a vital role. They can brawl for person rights. When any group works against human rights, press can converse in support of person right.

6. Development of the society: for the development of society freedom of push is also play and chief role. Because, press can ensure the real situation, when it is in liberty, but in other way when press is not free from any other types of strain, populace is not able to ensure the real state of society. When pressure, people is not clever to ensure the real condition of civilization. When press is free the power will be clever to know the condition of any condition and will be able to take sufficient actions for the development of the society.

7. Way of Change is Normal: In which state press is free, that state alters whatever thing very easily, normally and democratic way. Because they do not call for any type of force for this? The authority and other groups are able to appreciate the real condition from press and they can take the proper choice.( know About micro credit)

8. Reducing Corruption: Press is the glass of society. It gives the picture of a socially, in up to date world press is very alert and aware about corruption. So, when bear down on is free, it can give the real news of the society, and the authority can seize the proper measures against corruption. As a result, for reducing vice from the society freedom of press is also central.

9. Driving the State and Government: In the modern world press is well-known as the ‘For the advance of any state there is no alternative of freedom of press. Because press can force the state and society in a proper way. With the freedom of push is very imperative for the development of state system and function.

10. Articulation of National Goal: Every state has some objectives and view for the expression. Specially, every state wants to ensure the press can force the state to this method and it fulfills the will of the nation in a short era
From these influence, we have find that press is playing a very important role in the modern world. Without the liberty of press none can drive the state in a good way. So, for the welfare of state, autonomy of press is very vital and significant is sue.
Problems of Freedom of Press:
Though freedom of press is an essential matter, but in case of irresponsible journalism or press liberty creates some problems in the modern world as:

1. Wrong Information: For the cause of freedom, press is an give free news without real thesis, this type of wrong information creates harmful state in different times.

2. Instability: Different times press give a huge number of wrong in order, it causes unsteadiness in the society. This is also a vital problem connecting to press freedom.
3. Irresponsibility: In modern time, press is not responsible all era. From the benefit of liberty sometimes media gives irresponsible news. This type of capriciousness and wrong information cause a great damage for the society and that is always damaging for the nation.

Freedom of Press:
Developing Countries Perspective: Underdeveloped and on the increase countries are not well recognized in democracy. Most of the times the ruling system of these countries are single man show authoritarian type of ruling system. As a consequence, freedom of force down is very limited here. Because the government of these countries cannot abide any type of criticism against them. So, they do not stand any other news adjacent to them. Without these, there is another type of difficulty as regards these countries, as though media found free, nation, and most of the times they are not answerable about their duty. This type of activity creates one more type o f quandary for the development of these countries. Irresponsible press is the danger to development of the nation. For the development of a nation press should be gratis and accountable about the interest of the nation.(electronic government)

Freedom of Press:
: When we observe the scenario of developed country, we find that push is fully free from the control of the govt. or political control, USA, Erosion and Japanese push also fully free from any type of control. With this chance these depress also responsible to their nation and they want to make sure and secure their nation’s attention. They never want to do anything which is next to their national interest. They stand some responsibility to them society, they also give real scenario of the occasion. They always work against misrule and misbehavior. They work against dishonesty in the society as well as in the state. These presses are always aware about democratic rule. They always guide the government to the way of growth and development. As a result, the presses of developed aware plat an important role in the progress and development of that nation. They give the news of corruption to the management. So, any type of corruption is not possible in these countries. Because, this depress play an open and active role in the society. People can know all by these press. So, they can pressure on the policy of the government. As a consequence, government is duty-bound to take appropriate measures for the growth of the country. In this way press can play a vital role in the growth of these countries.(what is women rights)

Freedom of push is very important in the modern world. Without the autonomy of press the condition, the society everything is on threat. For the welfare of the civilization and the growth of democratic system, none can deny the importance of liberty, of press. Specially, current democracy is fully meaningless without the liberty of press.

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Students Politics

Politics In Bangladesh

Students Politics in Bangladesh: an observation

Introduction: Education is the backbone of a nation. But most of the time following our leaders overlook this truth. They favor their play rough on educational policy. Instead of pen guns promote student. So, today our educational institutions are not supported for education and aptitude rather than guns and gatherings. However, our students have a great story when they played a leading part in making the nation free from overseas occupation, repression and to establish human rights of the people. Then student organizations to be oriented to the interests of students, and the best welfare of the nation. But over time, became the association earlier of the following parts. Today the best of our politicians are playing a double game. When towards the students to stay away from politics. In case of opposition, on the other hand, want to take a top in politics. The current debate on the ban on student organizations is also the effect of the double standard of our politicians.(what is leadership)

Political history of our students: An organization Students of our country has a long history and magnificent. Students have played a significant role in the anti-British movements against repression in Pakistan, linguistic group, Anti-Ayub movement of '60, six trips to the point, people upsurge'69, after all, during our War of Liberation. At that time, the policies of the student had a -

First, the tyranny progestin, oppression, injustice, etc.
Second, protect the welfare of students.
After the liberation, our students have been alienated into two camps. First, the investor and the second faction, the faction of the left.
After the brutal murder of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975, the political character of the students has been changed a lot. In the first phase of the military regime, there was a link shortest among the best students and the head of state. Here the President was right to support students. So, there was an addition to horizontal between political parties and student organizations at his place of vertically.
In the second phase of the military regime, the students became more political opportunist. During this period, the leaders of at least two students were full ministers.

Gradually, with the advent of civil society against the military government, student organizations became partners in support of the parties. Then student organizations became the home of the national political authorities that provide strength and money to terrorist activities alongside the government.

So, after the conquest of the Ershad government, the dependence of political parties in student organizations on their allies was enormously greater. The two rival parties, the BNP and have made their efforts to sponsor all student organizations if they use them against each other. Thus, during the rule of BNP in 1991-96, most of the universities were under the control of JCD. But with the dethronement of BNP in 1996, JCD has been replaced by Chatra Leauge (BCL). At present, Chatra in use since the control of the whole educational tradition survived their opponents. They are doing the same things, as done by Chatra League.
The current trends in student politics: With respect to political pre-release of the students, the nature and individuality of our organizations present day students were very distorted.
First, at present, the political attention of students as an important basis of political authority in national politics. Students are now influential not only in their own organizations, but also in their parties.

Secondly, the policy now in one day for students is neither people nor education, but is supported obliquely oriented to personal interests and power. Their movements are not for students, but only to reinforce their position in the site. They are student leaders, rather than power elite of our society.

Thirdly, in the past, students had a complaint against oppression, cruelty and injustice. They were moving next to the brutality of humanity. Unfortunately, these characters have changed our students' organizations existed. Today, students are not criminals, they are brutal killers. The majority of crimes in our society have been devoted, directly or indirectly, by the students in his place in so-called bad policy. The type of our daily politics of the hands of students in a hireling, rent-seeking, aggression and crime to love.(Definition of secularism )

Fourth, another significant trend of political discussion among our students is a rival student organizations take to organize a specific region or institution. For this, they also do not hesitate to kill their opponents. The most devilish because their behavior is that sometimes kill their pictures only to create an alarming situation in their individual institutions.

Fifthly, all the terrorist groups of students are booked by politicians who use them to effect their position within and outside the party. Sometimes, the villages of student organizations of equality with those of political party affiliation.

Sixth, students question the very Large 'leaders' rising arrest, manipulate jobs, build up and climb aboard the reimbursement scale socio-economic, including the seats in parliament. Thus, the various fronts of the students are only a likeness of the main political parties whose immediate goals have more to do with seizing authority and enjoy it while it lasts.

Controversy over the ban on student politics: During the domination of AL President Justice Shahabuddin was admirable to recommend policy to prohibit students. Then the government Awami Leage was to preserve themselves by saying that I also agree with the president but he needs the cooperation and agreement between the parties patronizer. The current prime minister also said that his government would ban student politics, but it is necessary to bring the academic environment of our educational institutions. His statement has created a controversy on the issue. One group has taken its position next to student politics, while others, including opposition AL are also banned.(micro credit)

A. Arguments against the students who take part in politics: The arguments are generally made against the students who take any interest in politics are as under:
1. The students are young and it is likely that they will be easily misled by intelligence agents of political parties. Even the current state of student politics in our country is enough to prove that assertion.

2. Through the active participation of students in politics, students are derailed today and the educational institutions of our country have become battle grounds. Students are more familiar with guns than books. So, if we fail to make education free from politics would be left behind in this ever changing world.(Electronic Government)

3. Those who support the proscription of student politics, the students argue that politics is the root of many socio-political crime and disorder in the country. It 's become a danger to the orderly development of our youth.

B. The arguments in favor of students who participate in politics: Those who support the policy of the students, submitted the following topics:
1. If students take away from politics altogether, politicians remain children even when they are grown. Then they will be more easily misled later in life because of their lack of knowledge and inexperience.
2. Historically our students role-plated magnificent national liberation, progress and development. They were the pioneer in making the nation free from dictatorship in 1990. Thus, every effort to keep students out of politics may have some grounds, but in the long run can cause enormous damage to the nation.
C. Sometimes, the reasons given for the banning policy students are challenged by the fact that ---
1. Why are efforts to ban student politics was not treated as an attempt to hide the failure of the government in striking and punish the terrorists?
2. Does not the prohibition of political pressure from the students in the national politics?
3. The ban on student politics means identification of student politics and also irresponsive to a non-politician. Do you?
4. Will it help to eradicate terrorism from society?
Final Comment: Despite the above discussion, in particular influence facour and against the policy of the students, we must not forget that the main duty of a student is to remember his lessons and not to take part in public affairs. He is to gain the knowledge to train his mind and to prepare him for the duties of life. If you take too high a share of the political relations, which can not deviate from its main occupation. However, there is a demarcation between attractive intelligent attention in politics and taking part in public affairs. This line should never be disturbed.(caretaker government)

Moreover, it seems clear that what our political parties are doing is not only profligate, but also completely illegal. So our political parties should ensure that they will keep any relationship with the student organization. Otherwise, all work must be translated only dubiousness and discontent.(women Rights)

Tuesday, May 29, 2012


definition of Leadership

Introduction: Good leadership are made not born. They develop through a process does not complete the self-study, education, training and knowledge. This guide will help you in this process.(know about secularism)

To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are things that need to be convinced of them, they know, and do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good work and best are continually knife to harvest their leadership skills, do not rest on our laurels.

Before you begin, we classify leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to have made an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more unified and coherent. Leaders perform this procedure, by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.For data micro credit)

Bass (1989 and 1990) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two give details of the development of leadership for a small number of people. These theories are:

- Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.

- A crisis or a life event can cause a person to address the downturn, which brings out extraordinary leadership in a common person. This is a great theory Events.

- People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the theory of transformational leadership. It 's the most popular theory to practice today and the premise upon which this guide.

Principles of leadership: an intelligent leader must take is researching the principles to follow, because all these have been tested successfully.

- Be tactically and technically proficient
- Know yourself and hunt for self-improvement
- Knowing their followers, and look out for their own good
- Keep their team member learned
- Setting up a model
- Ensure that the task is understood, supervised and talented
- Training of their followers as a team
- The sound and timely decision making
- Develop a sense of responsibility to their subordinates
- Using their units in accordance with its ability to
- Looking for responsibility and accountability for their events
Knowing them and seek self-improvement: In order to know themselves, they must appreciate their being known, and then attribute. Seeking self-improvement means continually increase their attribute. This can be achieved through self-study, formal classes, reflection and interaction with others.

Be technically proficient As a leader, they must
- Know their job and I'm familiar with the solid work every day of their employees.

- Look for responsibility and take responsibility for their actions-seeking ways to bring their organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do, sooner or later-do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move onto the next brave.
- Plays a sound and timely decisions, high quality and problem solving, decision making, and planning tools.
- Set the example Be a good role for replication of their employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the alter-we want to see Mahatma Gandhi
- Know their people and look out for their well-know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for their staff.
- Keep employees informed-not only know how to communicate with them, but also elderly and input.
- Develop a sense of responsibility to their workers, help to develop good-natured traits that will help them take their professional responsibilities.
- Ensure that activities are understood, supervised, and accomplished-communication is the key to this responsibility.
- Train as a team Although many so-called-best to call their organization, department, section, etc. a team, the teams are not really ..... are just a bunch of people doing their jobs.
- Use the full capabilities of your organization-By developing a team spirit, will be able to use their organization, department, section, etc. to their maximum capability.
Factors of leadership: There are four major factors of leadership:
Follower: Different people need different leadership styles. For example, a new assumption needs more in the direction of an employee expert. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of inspiration. They must recognize their people! The opening point is crucial to have a good knowledge of the quality of the human landscape, as the needs, knowledge, and do attributes.(how to know about electronic government)

Leader: They must have a true understanding of who they are, what they know and what they can do. Also note that is the following, not the leader that determines whether a head has happened. If you do not trust or lack of self-assurance in their leader, then it will be trivial. To be successful, should lead their followers, not themselves or their superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.

Location: Everybody is different. What they do not always work in a situation in another. They must use their judgment to decide the best course of action and the management style needed for each situation. For example, it may be necessary to address an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the comparison is too late or too early, too cruel or too weak, then the mat proves unproductive results.
Various factors influence these forces. Examples of forces are on their relationship with their elders, the ability of their people, the best informally within their organization, and how their company is prepared.

Communication: It is the last message. For a communication leader is needed. Whatever brightness or power is the leader in all these are vain, but the power of communication.

Leadership and policy framework: In a situation of effective leadership, the leader is a lawyer whose leadership style is the covenant and construction. While in a state of unproductive leadership, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership method is manipulation? Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get, but to evaluate the distribution of power and wealth, but to build links with other stakeholders, use persuasion first, and then use co-operation and coercion only if necessary.

Leadership and symbolic framework: In a state of effective leadership, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in a position of leadership fails, the operator is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is to play certain roles and give burn imitation, these leaders use symbols to capture notice, and tries to frame the knowledge, experience by providing plausible interrelations , who find out and talk to a vision. This model suggests that leaders can be put fan of one of these four categories and there are times when you approach traveling alone is not sufficient, then we must strive to be aware of all four approaches, and not rely only on one or two. For example, in the course of a change large organization, a leadership style structural can be more efficient than a way visionary leadership, while in a period in which the growth corpulent is necessary, the visionary approach can be improved. We also need to know ourselves, how each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We must be aware of these at any time and be aware of the limitations of our favoring just one approach.
Types of Leadership:
Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship): People who get this rating are job oriented and are very firm on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or teamwork. People highly task oriented show these characteristics: they are very powerful physically timetables, expect people to do what is said, without prompting or discussion; amazing when it's bad tend to focus on who is to blame, rather than focusing on it is absolutely wrong and how to prevent it, but they are intolerant of what they see as a rebel (can be in a minute someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to make a payment or developed.

Team Leader (high task, high relationship): This type of person who leads by example and constructive events to promote team in a situation where all team members can reach their top potential, both as individuals and as team members . They support the team to reach team goals as efficiently as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bond among members. Usually form teams and conduct some of the most productive.

Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship): This person uses primarily reward the power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to achieve its objectives. On the contrary, are almost incapable of employing coercive and disciplinary powers more legitimate. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with other team members.

Leader depleted (low task, low relationship) A leader who uses a "hand up and disappear" management style. Since they are not even committed to accomplishing the task or service, but essentially allow their team to do what he wants to break away from the process and encourage tam, allowing the team to suffer a series of power struggles.

The more desirable place to be a leader along the two axes in most cases would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people, the leader of the team. However, not entirely dismiss the other three. Some situations may require one of the other three to be used at times. For example, playing Leader depleted, allowing their team to gain confidence in themselves. Be an authoritarian leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. Knife carefully the situation and the forces that influence, they will know at what points along the axis must be to achieve the preferred outcome.

The Process of Great Leadership: The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1987) which is common to successful leaders:
- Challenge the process - First, find a process that wants to believe to be improved more.
- Inspire a shared vision - Next, share that vision into words that can not be written by their flowers.
- Enabling others to act-Give them the tools and methods to solve the mali.
- Model-so when the process gets tough, dirty his hands. A boss to tell others what to do ... shows that a leader can do.
- Encourage the heart - Share the glory with the heart of their followers, while the maintenance of pain in the right.
Traits of a good leader: Compiled by Santa Clara University and the Group: Tom Peters
- Honesty - Display sincerity, integrity and sincerity in all their actions. Deceptive behavior does not inspire confidence.
- Competent - Their actions should be based on reason and moral beliefs principal. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings.
- Forward-looking - Set goals and have a vision of the future. The dream must belong to the entire organization. Effective leaders imagine what it wants and how to get it. They usually choose priorities arising from their fundamental values.
- Inspiring - Display confidence in everything they do. By showing endurance in mental strength, physical and spiritual, they inspire others to reach for new heights. Take charge when necessary.
- Intelligent - Read, study and seek challenging assignments.
- Fair-minded - Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. Display empathy to be sensitive to the feelings, values, interests and welfare of others.
- Broad-minded - Are you looking for diversity.
- Courageous - Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal, despite the seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Display a confident calm when under stress.
- Simple - Use judgment to make the right decisions at the right time.
- Imaginative - Make timely and appropriate changes in their thinking, strategies and methods. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, thoughts, and solutions to problems.
Concluding remarks: the leaders do not command excellence, they build distinction. Excellence is "being all that can be" done within the limits of what is wrong for their organization. To make excellence a leader must first be of good moral fiber. They must do everything they are supposed to do. Excellence starts with the best of good spirit and strong that they engage in the whole process of leadership. And the process is the primary form of life of a person of honorable character. A strong person may be greater or bad. A gang leader is an example of a strong person with a poor quality, while an outstanding group of leaders of the people is one with the unity is strong and good. The organization wants a leader with strong individuality is good, the people who will guide the future and show that you can trust.(saarc leadership)


definition of secularism

Introduction: Secularism is the creation of the European Renaissance, which emphasizes the opposite of this-worldly sophistication. Secularism does not include physical thinking and Meta also excluded if grounded on the eternal soul and supernatural strength. With the extension of science and technology, secularism has also become the dominant ideology in both the grazing of academic debate and responsible state plan. Even most of the country today are very interested in confirming themselves as secular and do their best to get the certificate by representatives of Western secularism. The exponent of secularism seek to separate religion from the state and politics to defuse the human life of any religion shall apply. But in practice, the proponents of secularism are much more common then the supporters of the pious practice in all spheres of human life. For example, India is regarded worldwide as a country traditionally mundane but the country is bankrupt by a common political party.

Meaning of secularism: it is very difficult to give a single definition of secularism. Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary defines 'secular' as belonging to the present world, or property are not religious. It means things that are civil, not ecclesiastical, are not about religion, is not bound by monastic rules. Oxford Advanced Dictionary defines the students 'secular' expression as something that is not about religion or business. The dictionary describes' secularism as the belief that the law, education should be based on facts, science rather than religion, etc..(to know about Micro credit)

A secular state is one that has no official ties to any movement or position at all sacred. This is a whole view of life and the visible cosmos. This estimate does not include the metaphysical thought, and thought also exclude the eternal world, soul and supernatural strength. Secularism efforts to craft the full meaning of human life with its ups and downs.
Aspects of secularism: secularism has both a subjective and an objective piece.
one. Subjective aspects of secularization involves the gradual disappearance of religious considerations, feelings and images from caring about worldly affairs, so that faith has ceased to exist as an independent power, or merely a religious concept of the transcendental. As a result, people from the experience requirement, transactions and institutions of everyday life in terms that make no reference to the heavenly.

b. The objective aspect of secularization is the process by which the offices, religious institutions and ceremonies are extruded from the community of life in education, government and legislative direction.
In addition, the secular brings with it two segments inevitable for the life of human commerce as a whole.

First, the doctrine of enforced secularism of the dilemma I guess with the state and without vagueness firmly said that religion should be separate from the state.
Secondly, the political philosophy implemented by the secularism, materialism, as distinct as idealism, that secularism is not neglected genius, but he knows the material well-being work independently, if insidiously, to control the mind.
Secularism and the relationship between state and religion: the principle of secularism resolved the issue on the relationship between state and faith. The State has nothing to do in the midst of a single person so far or she is nervous with the world's religions propagate the omnipotence of the wonderful natural force and declare to the world as eternal as the ultimate goal of super natural power and speak the world ever, as the final destination of the human being. State and faith should not outline them as their subject matter jurisdiction and is completely different.
The flowering of secular views facilitated the creation of an independent and sovereign nation state. Because of the priority of consideration due, the territory during the Middle Ages religion was established under the direction of the Christian priesthood. With the growing power of secularism, the religious has been gradually losing its dominance and left on the face of severe resentment of the people of the world have established their sovereign predictable. Over time, the division between state and religion happen and the State's responsibility is to make all sorts of earthly well-being of his people was recognized.(to know about electronic government)

Secularism and religion: There was no debate on the distributions of secularism and religious guarantee. The purpose of secularism is to improve the whole of human life from the material at home and materialist methodology. The object of the secular world is the evidence, which is detectable by human senses. Deals with the understanding that secularism is not transcendental, which could achieve with the experience and the cause which can be transcendent obscenity. On the other hand, preaches the supremacy of faith superpower usual, gives eternal relation of the world, heaven and hell that are hidden and unknown to the individual human health. Secularism has no involvement with the transcendental world. In this intelligence, religion and secularism are not only separated, but are opposed concepts.(to know about saarc)

Another dominant point of view into consideration, even if the secular and spiritual faith are distinct, but their conflict is not predictable. In this sense, secularism not be familiar with the eternal world, at the same time requires it, not deny it, supports this point of view than to say that cooperation is possible with those religious people who in spite of their faith religious are trying to make their life full of meaning through the fabric content. It 'a fact that today there is no contradiction between secularism and peaceful observance of the faith. Secularism means do not make purchases at any specific religion, but to ensure that all the religions fail forward with equal status. The state should promote not express any religion.
Conclusion: In the end, the meaning of religion is not secularism. It means secular neutrality. Secular state does not interfere with the performance of the peaceful religion. Thus, secularism should be used as a rule that does not consider spiritual influence. In this sense, secularism inspired by the mass of the group develop their secular life through material support without leaving their spiritual beliefs and activities.(to know about what is socialism)

Monday, May 28, 2012

Micro Credit

what is micro credit

Micro credit: a scale development

Introduction: money generating money. Adam Smith in his famous book The Wealth of the nation said: 'When you have a little' coverage, it is often easy to get more. The difficult thing is to get that big 'little. Microcredit is a very small size of loan that is given to skinny to self-employment. The institutional arrangement is an innovation in micro-hot revolution poverty. The revolt has started micro credit among rural women in 1970. The revolt had its roots in the claim that the poor need credit and could use more highly than bad credit and responsible. (to konw aBout Electronic government)
Definition of Micro Credit: Conceptually, microcredit can be described as an advance security petite offered free to the poor to create jobs in small income-generating activities based on the methodology set loan.
Microcredit can generally be defined as a programmer who offer credit for self-employment and other financial and business services including bundle, and technical assistance to the population Broke.
Definition of Microfinance: Microfinance is a combination of savings, loans, investment opportunities, additional options of insurance and financial services.
Poverty, the empowerment of women, nutrition, health, planning people, education, housing, self sufficiency, sustainability are all addresses of microfinance.
Features Micro credit: The microcredit system, service providers go to the door of the scale based on the belief that poor people should not go to the bank rather than bank must go to the people. The recognition is another important micro coating. (to know about caretaker government)
- Microcredit is known with less paperwork.
- Workers must make the usual visits to the construction of the borrower to provide advice and oversight.
- A small mass of the loan.
- And 'free security.
- The recovery time is more than 90 percent.
- All loans to be a new employee in instilments paper or bi-weekly basis.
Difference between micro-credit and bank credit
Micro Credit Bank credit
1. Loan system is simple 1. On loan is complicated.
2. Poor may simply access to micro credit 2. The poor have little access to bank credit imperfect.
3. Employment rate loan up to 85 percent 3. Supervision of credit loan, then recovery rate is 40-60 percent.
4. Credit highly guarded, so as to rate of recovery is about 99 percent 4. Credit less controlled, in order to rate of recovery is 40-60 percent.
5. NGO staff are friendly and helpful to poor borrowers 5. Bank staff are regularly in a friendly way with the poor borrowers.
6. Repeat loans are easier to within 2 or 3 days to repay the previous loan 6. Loan recovery is difficult.
7. No certificates or documents are required to receive loans 7. The certificates or documents are required to receive loans.
8. The lawsuit after borrowers default not to be taken 8. Bank adopts the judicial process as certified cases.
9. Borrowers have 95 percent women face gender 9. Poor women have access to a very partial to the banks.
10. Landless and illiterate in touch with lending by 10 NGOs. Landless and illiterate, have no access to banks.
11. Borrowers have the power through the stipulation of education on development issues 11 different counts literacy. There is such a scale in a bank.
The birth and evolution of Micro Credit: Microcredit is not a new event in our country. The birth and evolution of micro-credit have been enumerated below:
Usurers A. Traditional: The first time, people would use the money from loan sharks conformist. They will receive a high interest rate and in this estimate were similar to blood suckers. The fishes of reminders used to lend money to the subject only to shake their lands. The Kabuliwalas were more interested in getting the concern over capital.
Debtors Agriculture Act 1937 and the Money Lenders Act (1938) has imposed restrictions on the activities of money lenders. Sher - E - Bangla AK Fazlul Hoq saved poor farmers by the Boards of moneylenders to issue debt settlement.
B. Comilla Model: The model has been urbanized Comilla Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD) in 1960 with the main propitious Aktar Hamid Khan. This model was also based on a team approach and the micro conditions of glory to the Cooperators. It 'was extended to the whole country in 1970, includes a rural development program (IRDP). Under IRDP farmers were trained in two groups of first-level profits, credits and production factors are mobilized. Later, IRDP has been distorted in BRDB (Bangladesh Rural Development Board). Currently, BRDB is a top supplier of micro-credits in the government distributes among the poor.
C. Grameen Model: Prof. Dr. Mohammad Yunus led loans and distribution device in 1976 in Zobra petite village of Chittagong. And 'persistent state in a project enabled Geameen Bank Prakalpa money with the help of the Bangladesh Bank. After the success of this system, the government said in 1983 Grameen Bank Ordinance. In fact, Dr. Mohammad Yunus trandformed microcredit practices in institutionalized reorganized and innovative method which recognized worldwide as the Grameen model.
In addition to these unusual micro-credit approaches have been urbanized by BRAC, ASA, Proshika and other NGOs. Today Bangladesh is called the laboratory of micro-credit and micro-credit revolution.
Campaign Microcredit: Microcredit, which was urbanized in a poor country like Bangladesh is now considered one of the most powerful weapon to alleviate shortages around the world. In order to duplicate the program to organize globally, the first Micro Credit Summit was arrested in Washington DC, USA in 1997. The peak of microcredit launched a global group to reach 100 million poorest families with credit for the world of nature and the employment of other military and monetary affairs by 2005. At that summit prof. Yunus said, 'we believe that poverty does not belong to a refined human society. It belongs to museums. "The Micro Credit Campaign has successfully designed three local meetings: October 2000 in Harare in Zimbabwe. February 2001 in New Delhi in India, in October 2001, the pueblo of Mexico and in February 2004 in Dhaka of Bangladesh.

Micro-credit Global Perspective: The image around the world concerning the coverage of microcredit shows the donations made by the program. Until December 21, 2001 for a total of 2186 banks reported Micro achieving 54 million customers, 26.8 million of which were among the poorest when it is started with the program. Of 2186 institutions that had reported to the unit Microreader 1075 were in Asia. 740 in Africa, 230 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 59 in North America, 59 in Europe and 23 in the Middle East. Of the 54.90 million global customers 47.90000000 in Asia, in Africa 4.5 million and 2 million in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Microcode has become a global agenda for economic and social development. Grameen Bank, the mother of effective micro-credit program has supported 113 organizations in 34 countries in Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The full report of these organizations are now one million members, 99% of whom are women. NGOs, like other major BRAC. ASA were replicate their programs in different countries of the world.
Micro credit initiatives and Government: The Government of Bangladesh microcredit is interested in two ways:
one. Funding for NGOs: the PKSF (Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation) is an apex public for the provision of military and institutional credit to NGOs. PKSF government established in 1990. Since then PKSF has lent about U.S. $ 252-250 NGOs cover more than 3.8 million borrowers. As the largest association of micro-credit loans in the world's standards of PKSF, the rule and the procedures are approved by several countries to develop their own micro-credit sectors.
b. Provide micro-credit: At present, thirteen ministries and partition of the Government of Bangladesh and its neighboring departments have distributed micro-credit. Government departments and the organization has so far disbursed about Tk. 15 billion to 10 million people living in poverty through microcredit. Currently owned by the Government Krishi Bank, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank, Sonali Bank, Janata Bank, Agrani Bank, Bangladesh Ansar and VDP Bank Bank jobs are in service microcredit programs.
Credit and Development Forum (CDF) is an organization of their government, which is a network of NGOs MFLS (Microfinance Institutions). CDF provides a basic training and require the service to its members changed MFLS NGOs.
Microcredit and Poverty Reduction: The main entities of the Micro credit is to make low-income families and thus reduce poverty. Micro-credit leads to improvement in income and income growth to lift the poor above the poverty line.
The Secretary-General Kofi opines that eradicating poverty is perhaps the most challenging global economy. Out of 6 billion world population 2.8 billion survive on less than two dollars a day progresses. Of the 1.2 billion people, 50 million live in Asia and 30 million in Africa. Microcredit programs in these regions show that the Micro Credit is a poverty alleviating muscular arms. More than 64 million poorest people in the world have a full part in the previous seven years of microfinance projects in the function out of the circle of poverty cruel.
Micro Credit and Women Empowerment: micro ruffles a noteworthy role in the positive empowerment of rural women. Through their involvement in microcredit, many women have hit leaders, instigating change in the common practices and relationships and mobilizing social action. The status of women both in their homes and communities is best when they are responsible for the loan and asset management. When generating their own power and self-control and with more respect. Poor women boast the best credit rating. In Bangladesh, for example women default on loans less often than men and women full credit has a much better home use and quality of life for the family. The direct effect of microcredit programs on women's position in the public sphere as the bank. Thane headquarters, hospitals, etc.
High Interest Rate-A Dilemma: It is assumed that the distributors of microcredit in Bangladesh is high time the interest charged on credit. As a result, borrowers are getting poorer. The critic says that the credit is much more expensive NGOs in favor of a poor borrower to make money in a bank. But we focus on the same side of the question at issue.
A. Interest Rate is not high:
- Rate of 15% flat credit the attention of NGOs is essential to its sustainability in the long term extended.
- NGOs take trains on the threshold of borrowers that reduces the transport cost and time borrower.
- A programmer credit NGOs can never be sustainable if they can not cover the total outlay of his action, in particular the following: * The salary costs of personnel cradle * annual * funds * The annual costs of depreciation and the cost inflation.
- There is no denying the effectiveness of strict supervision and monitoring of the glory NGOs operated on household incomes of poor borrowers. Cost of supervision and control make the rate of attention these sane.
- With Micro is not charity. Interest rates have to attack the cost of micro credit institutions. Otherwise, this body would cease to exist. So let the market agree on the rate.
Interest rate on credit B. Micro is very high: NGOs are charging high interest on microcredit. They are doing business in the name of poverty reduction. According to one study, the micro system with interest charges as above 30% to 40%. In this position, the receivers of credit run the risk of taking new loans from which the damage rate. They reality is that the Micro Credit perpetuate the poverty of the borrowers. Among the other persons who administer the program are better and have colorful beetle.
Other criticisms:
- The pros and cons of micro-credit system, its efficiency is a matter of dispute.
- The cost of the Micro recognition is very impressive. Micro credit operations can be vilified as Kabuliwalah activities.
- Microloans are serious procedural problems and do more than good mali.
- There is good governance and transparency in Micro Credit as the organization.
- The recovery system of paper creates pressure on borrowers.
- There is no legal framework for the control and the Micro Credit overseas, where the organization. As a result, many NGOs are not allowed corrupt the poor.
- Many NGOs are limited unregistered transactions in the name of the micro-credit and the reduction of scarcity.
Policy recommendations: microcredit system has some functional and procedural problems. Some recommendations have been placed to overcome these problems.
- Micro credit collapse operators should focus on poverty rather than use it as a business.
- You should cut rates on credit warning. This should reduce operating costs.
- The size of the loans should be inflated so that people can go out to start the cycle of poverty.
- The micro-credit banks under the government's initiatives may be well known in rural areas to streamline micro financing.
- Each financial institution wants to surveillance and control. A regulatory commission should be set for the operation of overseas Micro credit programs.
- Good governance and transparency are vital factors that should be aimed at ensuring the functioning of microcredit.
- In Bangladesh, the majority of citizens are Muslims. We can see the Islamic economic system and Islamic banking in Islam. So, micro-credit system should be in line with the principles of the principles of Islam.
Conclusion: Despite some limitations, microcredit has been established as an effective means of alleviating shortages and approach to development. This is a material of pride that Bangladesh is a global center of excellence in micro and home to many successful micro lending support to the institutions. Mrs. Mbeki, the woman from South Africa has really defined Bangladesh as the 'University of Microfirorce'. Poverty can be eradicated throughout the world list of effective micro-credit that originated in a country like Bangladesh thin.( to know about saarc)

electronic government


Introduction: Information Technology (IT) is the new most talked about topic around the world. Information technology has his magic touch most of the natural sciences, social and time. Every obedience of knowledge and technology is trying its best to avail the highest benefit from this magical instrument to develop. Government and administration in different countries of the world are also under this magical spell of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The use of the internet before now is beginning to change the way government operates in response to the mandates of incorporation, such as improving the range of waste, streamline operations and to provide more achievable public access to information. Bangladesh also connected to this IT race in 1964 with the installation on the IBM computer at the Atomic Power Commission. Later computers became popular with financial institutions and the press and the introduction of home computers (PC) in early 1990. In contrast, the use of information technology in the process of government and administration is negligible to date.

The concept of E-government: E-government or resources of the electronic government delivery of public services and information to the public through electronic methods, such as the Wide Area Network, Internet and mobile computing. This method can serve a variety of different purposes, better delivery of public services to citizens, improved offenses with business and industry, citizen empowerment in access to information for a more efficient government. The advantage that results can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, the growth proceeds and / or cost reduction. In other words, the use of IT in government facilitates an efficient, fast and transparent dissemination of information to the public and others and to perform administrative tasks of the government.

Worldwide, the government is increasingly using sequential and internet technology to provide services between the public and citizens, businesses and other government agencies. From the essential elements of a country to different types of forms / documents can be found in a government website now limited as well as international visitors are always benefited from this. Some government websites allow citizens to access government documents, periodicals, the duty to file, reserve accommodation, paying bills, ordering vital records and renew licenses and permits from any location with an internet connection. Tourists can also get the necessary information, as it is, the reserve requirements for hotels, bus / train / plane schedules, ticket reservations, maps, etc. from web sites. Some government websites that allow visitors to print the visa from the sites and always allow the submission of the form seen online.

So, there are already cryptogram that e-government is transforming organizations, breaking down organizational boundaries and until further access to information, improving communication and facilitate independent processes.

Phases of E-government: United Nations / ASPA global survey recognized five categories to determine a country's e-government progress. According to the categories identified, the company's internet may vary from a country with some promising websites fully integrated autonomous ministry or organization in which a country provides all military specifications through an online gateway to Ingle. The technology allows the progression of being fast, dynamic and not necessarily an individual order. Since that e-government is driven by new technologies, its process is continuous, transforming everyday. There is no pre-set development and time-line or line-shelf. The categories are.

Emerging Web Presence: A country can have a solitaire or some official sites of national governments that provide information to the stationary member and serve as tools of public relations.
-Enhanced Web presence: the number of government Web pages to improve the information becomes more dynamic with users who have more options for access to information.
-Interactive web presence: a fairer exchange between the user and a provider of repair of government takes place, ie the forms can be downloaded; applications submitted online.
-Transactional Web Presence: Users can easily access the services with priority according to their needs, on-line transactions of formal behaviors, such as paying taxes, the amount recorded.
Completely web-presence: The absolute integration of all public services online through a single portal shop.
E-government in Bangladesh: Considering this condition generally, in Bangladesh, no one can deny that there is a culture of information being developed in Bangladesh. It is also seen that the government project in the IT department is far behind the private entrepreneurs. Bangladesh has only one government official homepage / website (http://www.bangladeshgov.org), which can not be considered fully in any industry to adjust and some official pages / web sites of various government agencies, such as office Comptroller and Auditor General (www.cagbd.org), Ministry of the support (www.gobfinance.org), Bangladesh Bank (www.bangladesh-bank.org), National Board of Revenue (www.nbr-bd-org), which only provide static information to the user. Unfortunately, the going rate on-line by various government agencies is not more than ten percent.

There are no documented IT cell, these agencies to monitor the sites yet. There is also no attempt to update existing websites, with up-to-date information regularly. Almost all websites have outdated information, giving a negative impression of the country. It is safer not to ask any questions about standards for the design of these websites. So far no websites are far better than that of Bangladesh ministries.

Communications with the public and the system continues to depend on the telephone and fax. There is almost all electronic communications in effective government offices. Among the progressive authorities within the government, the National Board of Revenue (NBR), conceptually very advanced in those other. It has undertaken a program to connect customhouses through a system of networking online.

Framing the situation in Bangladesh, with the phases of e-government UN / ASPA global survey it is clear that Bangladesh is still in the first phase of web presence promising. According to this stage, a country can have only one or a few sites official national program offering static information to the user and serve as instruments of public affairs.
Recommendation: The long description of the creation of Bangladesh in the IT industry and the different types of problems, it is clear that Bangladesh has much to do to develop its IT industry capable of ensuring the progress of Bangladesh in the next phase of E- government. Therefore, the following recommendations can be taken into account to prepare for the next phase of e-government.

one. National IT Policy: Bangladesh should adopt a national IT policy. Under the EN
Political will should be a 10 year action plan to share some goals such as building infrastructure in the country, creating a national database, increase the export of software from a specific number, etc.

Bangladesh Computer Council (BCC), have delivered a national policy for IT project for the government but for some mysterious reason has not been done yet in the past even though the government has declared IT as a thrust sector. Federation of Bangladesh Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FBCCI) the main body of the private sector, has already drawn up an action plan for a long ten years for the IT industry. Bangladesh Computer Samity, ISP Association of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Software Exporters Association and not a government agency Bangle-Tech is preparing a draft IT policy of Bangladesh.
b. EN: To achieve sustainable growth in the IT industry and compete in the expanding global IT market, the government of Bangladesh should develop the infrastructure strengthening buy computer Bangladesh Council (BCC), Ministry of Science, Information & Communication Technology and reorganize the role of BTTB. Government must move from the role of BTTB service provider infrastructure providers.
First, BTTB should complete the task of providing Internet service to all district headquarters as soon as possible. Ongoing process of computerization and networking in all government agencies should be done as soon as possible. Then each division Government ministries, departments, organizations and all district headquarters, Upazilla headquarters and the headquarters of the Union should be networked to the National Center for use of data in the shortest possible time.
Secondly, the entire ministry, decisions, government agencies and semi-government organizations should establish ID websites where all policies and information relevant to the community must be regularly and efficiently laid low. The government should implement common IT system to provide broad national coverage and access files from any citizen to the government and administrative system that can be irrational to extend public armed forces to the most remote corners. Official website of Bangladesh should be the homepage of all the information and links related to various ministries.(to know about caretaker government)
Thirdly, a special programmer should be used to repair Internet educational institutions and libraries at a subsidized rate. Latest these libraries can be put under a solitary network so that a citizen can access any library anywhere.
Fourth, cyber café should be established in all post offices, Union complex and complicated Upazilla to offer and guarantee admission to public information. These coffees later can 'be the set to introduce e-government.
Fifth, the government should also create a joint venture IT Parks. Park software with advanced communication services made with the cooperation of distant and non-resident companies in Bangladesh.

c. development of IT professionals for the development of IT professionals as a result of the measures should be taken:
First, the dramatic events of the government should be taken to support standard for IT training and education in the country. As the University Grant Commission (UGC) and the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB). There may be a body to oversee the curriculum and the establishment and coming up with a National Curriculum Integrated IT for Bangladesh.
Secondly, the government must take appropriate measures to attract talented students to take IT education. Unlike the type of grants / scholarships / assistantships may be offered to students. Government can offer unusual IT Education Loan for students too. Government can egg on the private sector for this.
d. The laws related to IT: We should have a legal framework to take care of the interests of IT professionals, private entrepreneurs, and customers either computer. Thus, the government must come forward and begin the legal framework to provide guidelines, principles, systems and legislation to promote e-business.( to know about Women rights)
and. IT Commission / Division: The need for an IT committee felt very bad human being. Because the mali computer technology are so that only a person learned to recognize the trend of the requirements and to the stress of the IT infrastructure.
Conclusion: Bangladesh as a developing country with a good impression of promising young people, has proven its value in the field of IT. Today our youth are competing in the international stadium in the IT industry with energy and confidence. However, to e-government, Bangladesh has to go a long way. The personal sector has a little 'more than sufficient to demonstrate this promising division. Again it all depends on the role of government. The government must choose which way to go. To add in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and organizational performance through the introduction of e-government or to the century old administration in corruption, red tapism, dissatisfaction, nepotism, the option is for governments.(to know about Hartal In bangladesh)